Informe de la Experta independiente sobre los derechos humanos y la solidaridad internacional – Misión a Brasil

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GE.13-11829 (S) 220313 280313
Consejo de Derechos Humanos
23º período de sesiones
Tema 3 de la agenda
Promoción y protección de todos los derechos humanos,
civiles, políticos, económicos, sociales y culturales,
incluido el derecho al desarrollo
Informe de la Experta independiente sobre los derechos
humanos y la solidaridad internacional, Virginia Dandan
Adición
Misión al Brasil (25 a 29 de junio de 2012)*
Resumen
Por invitación del Gobierno del Brasil y en cumplimiento de su mandato, la Experta
independiente sobre los derechos humanos y la solidaridad internacional realizó una misión
de estudio al Brasil del 25 al 29 de junio de 2012. Presentó un informe resumido de esta
misión en su primer informe anual al Consejo de Derechos Humanos en su 21º período de
sesiones, en septiembre de 2012.
Este informe final destaca las principales observaciones de la Experta independiente
en el transcurso de su misión, cuyo propósito era intercambiar puntos de vista con las
autoridades y otros agentes implicados y recabar información sobre las experiencias del
Brasil en solidaridad internacional, en particular en el contexto de sus actividades de
cooperación internacional.
La Experta independiente acogió con satisfacción las iniciativas de cooperación
internacional del Brasil en los ámbitos de la salud, la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición, la
educación, la tecnología agrícola y el desarrollo rural y en la lucha contra el hambre y la
pobreza, entre otros. Estas iniciativas basadas en la solidaridad sirven de lecciones valiosas
para establecer un nuevo paradigma en la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. Las
experiencias del Brasil dan muestra del valor de las mejores prácticas como portales de la
confluencia inherente entre la política y la práctica de la solidaridad internacional y el
ejercicio efectivo de los derechos humanos.
* El resumen del presente informe se distribuye en todos los idiomas oficiales. El informe propiamente
dicho figura en el anexo del resumen y se distribuye únicamente en el idioma en que se presentó.
Naciones Unidas A/HRC/23/45/Add.1
Asamblea General Distr. general
12 de marzo de 2013
Español
Original: inglés
A/HRC/23/45/Add.1
2 GE.13-11829
Anexo
[Inglés únicamente]
Report of the Independent Expert on human rights and
international solidarity on her mission to Brazil
Contents
Paragraphs Page
I. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1–6 3
II. General overview: in search of good practices ………………………………………………. 7–18 4
III. Solidarity in the Brazilian context………………………………………………………………… 19–23 6
IV. Constitutional principles governing Brazil’s foreign policy …………………………….. 24–30 7
V. Brazilian International Cooperation and Solidarity Initiatives………………………….. 31–36 8
VI. Good practices in international solidarity and cooperation………………………………. 37–83 10
A. Empowering women: towards realizing gender equality………………………….. 38–39 10
B. Social protection: towards realizing the right to an adequate standard
of living ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 40–48 10
C. Agriculture and food security: towards realizing the right to food…………….. 49–66 12
D. Health and the social determinants of health: towards realizing the right
to health ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 67–78 16
E. The full development of the person: towards realizing the right
to education ………………………………………………………………………………………. 79–83 19
VII. Concluding remarks …………………………………………………………………………………… 84–89 20
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GE.13-11829 3
I. Introduction
1. In his last report to the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/15/32, July 2010), the
former Independent Expert Rudi Muhammad Rizki stressed the selected areas of focus and
emerging areas in which international solidarity should take a more central role, including
in sustainable development, Financing for Development and South-South cooperation. In
this regard, he emphasized the importance of following major global summits and
ministerial meetings in the economic, social and climate fields with a view to promoting the
right to international solidarity, and the conduct of country study visits to learn about and
observe, the various good practices undertaken by different actors. The current Independent
Expert, Ms. Virginia Dandan, recognizes that this view has important implications in her
task of preparing a draft declaration on the right of peoples and individuals to international
solidarity, to be presented to the Human Rights Council by 2014.
2. The Independent Expert affirms that, while international cooperation plays a central
role in international solidarity, international solidarity is not limited to international
assistance and cooperation, aid, charity or humanitarian assistance. International solidarity
should be understood as a broader concept that includes (a) sustainability in international
relations, especially international economic relations; (b) the peaceful coexistence of all
members of the international community; (c) equal partnerships and the equitable sharing
of benefits and burdens; and (d) refraining from doing harm or posing obstacles to the
greater well-being of others, including in the international economic system and to our
common ecological habitat, for which all are responsible. A preventive solidarity must be
put in place to confront global and local challenges, notably the alarming increase of natural
and man-made disasters, and the continuing rises in poverty and inequality. She also notes
that the notion of solidarity has defined the work of the United Nations since its inception,
drawing together nations and peoples to promote peace and security, human rights and
development. It is equally important to mention that the United Nations Millennium
Declaration identified international solidarity as one of the fundamental values
indispensable to international relations in the twenty-first century.1
3. In her statement to the Human Rights Council,2 Ms. Dandan expressed her view that
solidarity “… is a persuasion that combines differences and opposites, holds them together
into one heterogeneous whole, and nurtures it with the universal values of human rights.
International solidarity therefore does not seek to homogenize but rather, to be the bridge
across those differences and opposites, connecting to each other diverse peoples and
countries with their heterogeneous interests, in mutually respectful, beneficial and
reciprocal relations, imbued with the principles of human rights, equity and justice”.
4. International solidarity is an elusive concept, and is particularly resistant to
definition, rendering it almost an abstraction. But where it exists, it is unmistakable,
permeating thought and action, its effects observable. Therefore, the task of developing
norms and standards for what will eventually lead to the formulation of a draft declaration
of the right of peoples and individuals to international solidarity, calls for dialogue with
States, United Nations and other international agencies, and as many stakeholders as
possible.
1 General Assembly resolution 55/2 (www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm).
2 “The International Solidarity, The Right to Development and the Agents of Change”, Human Rights
Council panel on “The Way Forward in the Realization of the Right to Development: Between Policy
and Practice”, seventh plenary meeting, eighteenth session of the Human Rights Council, 14
September 2011, available at http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Solidarity/Pages/Statements.aspx.
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5. Beyond this important consideration, it is critical to take into account the policy and
actual practice of States, which are the vital conduits of international solidarity, and of
international cooperation. The Independent Expert therefore considers that the most
effective and appropriate way to understand policy on, and practice of, international
solidarity is through empirical methods of study and observation on the ground.
6. In this context, the mission to Brazil, the first-ever conducted by this mandate,
considered specific modalities arising from broad subject areas related to international
solidarity such as (a) strategies and programmes relating to the attainment of the
Millennium Development Goals, in particular Goal 8 (global partnerships), informed by a
gender perspective in all areas of concern; (b) elements of “solidarity diplomacy” and
international cooperation initiatives including transfer of technology and building capacity
in least developed countries (LDCs), cultural, scientific and educational exchange and
scholarship programmes; (c) national-level implementation of political commitments to
international agreements.
II. General overview: in search of good practices
7. In the present report, the Independent Expert documents the observations of her
study visit to Brazil from 25 to 29 June 2012, for the purpose of exchanging views with the
Government, civil society, academia, and regional and international stakeholders, to gather
information on the experiences of Brazil in international solidarity, including and in
particular in the context of its international cooperation activities. This report complements
the summary version presented to the twenty-first session of the Human Rights Council
held in September 2012 (A/HRC/21/44).
8. The study visit was facilitated by the Office of the United Nations Resident
Coordinator and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, who were focal points of the
visit, which took place for the most part in the capital city of Brasilia, home to Government
ministries and agencies. The Independent Expert, being in Rio de Janeiro in the previous
week to attend the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), was
able to intersperse her activities at the Conference, with visits to a Government institution
and to a regional agency whose offices are based in Rio de Janeiro. Subsequent to her visit,
the Independent Expert continued her engagement with Government officials to gather
further information on recent developments prior to the submission of this report.
9. The Independent Expert valued the warm reception she received from the
Government of Brazil and its institutions dealing with international cooperation, as well as
its openness in discussing a range of topics relevant to her mandate. She notes with
appreciation that – while the Government officials she met with expressed their pride, and
rightfully so, when speaking of the numerous high profile achievements of Brazil, including
the attainment of a number of Millennium Development Goals well before the deadline of
2015 – they also readily acknowledged and identified the many difficulties and obstacles
that remain to be addressed and surmounted.3
10. During the mission, the Independent Expert met with officials of Government
engaged in policy matters and activities in international cooperation. At the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs in Brasilia, she met with (a) the Director of the Brazilian Cooperation
Agency (ABC); (b) the Secretary for Cooperation and Trade Promotion; (c) the Under-
Secretary General for Political Affairs; (d) the Under-Secretary General for Policy; (e) the
Director of the Department of the Environment and Special Themes; (f) the Director of the
3 United Nations Development Programme, Millennium Development Goals Progress Reports – Latin
America and the Caribbean, August 2010.
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Department of Human Rights and Social Affairs; (g) International Advisors at the
Secretariat for Human Rights; (h) Secretary for Policies for Promotion of Racial Equality;
(i) the Secretary for Policies for Women; (j) the General Coordinator of International
Actions against Hunger and his team; (k) the Head of the Division of Educational
Cooperation; and (l) the Head of the Division of Science, Technology and Innovation.
11. At Government ministries in Brasilia, the Independent Expert met with (a) the
Secretary of Labour Inspection and her team; (b) the General Coordinator for Cooperation
of the Ministry of Health and his team; (c) the Chief of the International Advisory Council;
(d) officials of the International Department of the Ministry of Social Development and
Fight Against Hunger; (e) officials of the Secretariat for Science and Technology and for
Social Inclusion; (f) the International Advisor to the Ministry of Science, Technology and
Innovation; (g) the Technical Cooperation Coordinator of the Brazilian Agricultural
Research Corporation (Embrapa); (h) the Ministry of Agriculture; (i) the Division Manager
of the Bank of Brazil Foundation; and (j) the Chief Counsel for International Affairs and
Trade Promotion of the Ministry of Agrarian Development.
12. At the Presidency of the Republic, the Independent Expert met with the Special
Advisor to the Foreign Policy Unit of the Office of the President of Brazil and his team.
She also met with the President of the Institute for Applied Economic Research and her
team. She attended the National Council on Food Security, where she made a brief
presentation on her mandate and the objectives of her study visit.
13. At the Brazilian Congress, the Independent Expert met with the Chair of the Human
Rights Committee of the Senate and the Vice-Chair of the Human Rights Committee of the
Lower House. She also met with another Member of Parliament who was twice Chair of the
Committee. A meeting was also held with the Vice-President of the Committee on External
Relations and Defence of the Senate, concurrently, president of the Permanent
Subcommittee for Monitoring the Implementation of the Measures Adopted in Rio+20 and
the International Regime on Climate Change, and also former Minister of Education and
rector of the University of Brasília.
14. In Rio de Janeiro, the Independent Expert met with the Executive Director of the
South American Institute of Government in Health (ISAGS), a former Minister of Health of
Brazil and his team, and with the Director of the Centre for International Relations of the
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) and his colleagues.
15. Consultation meetings were held with representatives of United Nations agencies in
Brazil and with civil society organizations. A meeting was also held with the United
Nations Resident Coordinator.
16. The Independent Expert thanks all of the above for their courtesies and the time
shared with her. She is grateful to the following for their support and assistance: (a) Carlos
da Cunha Oliveira and his team, the focal point at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
responsible for the country study mission; (b) United Nations Resident Coordinator in
Brazil Jorge Chediek and his team; and (c) Maria Nazareth Farani Azevêdo, Permanent
Representative of Brazil to the United Nations in Geneva, and her team at the Permanent
Mission.
17. The consultations and dialogues of the Independent Expert with officials of the
Government of Brazil have been consolidated into this report, the primary consideration
being given to the relevance of such information to the policy and practice of international
solidarity.
18. The Independent Expert expresses her deep appreciation to the Government of
Brazil for providing her the opportunity to observe and learn first-hand what she had only
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previously read and heard about regarding the solidarity diplomacy of Brazil, which has
generated a growing interest on the part of the international community.
III. Solidarity in the Brazilian context
19. Brazil is one of the few countries in the world to have achieved most of the
Millennium Development Goals ahead of the 2015 deadline.4 During the past decade, the
country has embarked on a path of sustained economic growth and financial stability, with
full exercise of democracy and social inclusion resulting in considerable progress in its
human rights agenda. Economic policies and innovative social policies implemented in the
past decade have contributed to lift 40 million Brazilians out of poverty, creating a robust
middle class which today serves as the engine of growth in the country. A good example of
a successful social programme is the Bolsa Família, the largest cash transfer programme in
the world implemented under the Zero Hunger Strategy in 2003.
20. Brazilians like to identify themselves as a solidarity nation.5 They claim that
solidarity is expressed in the simple everyday practices of ordinary Brazilians and has been
incorporated into major social policies such as those implemented in the past decade to
combat socio-economic inequalities in the country. There is a common understanding
among everyone of the need to work together for a more equal and inclusive society. The
Independent Expert observed in her visit a strong sense of unity pervading Brazilian
society, driving it towards a common goal of better conditions that will benefit all
Brazilians. Solidarity movements emerged from their fight against hunger and poverty in
the 1990s to a constituency of a solidarity economy. Some of the best examples include the
cooperatives of “catadores”6—self-designed pickers of recyclable materials in the garbage
dumps of big cities such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, and the various social
mobilization movements against deforestation in the Amazon and the fight against
corruption. The level of engagement between the Government, private sector and civil
society in setting up innovative social policies provides valuable lessons in solidarity.
21. Despite achievements, challenges still persist in the largest South American country.
The sixth largest economy in the world, Brazil has a population of 200 million inhabitants,
of which 16 million are still living in extreme poverty, and the level of inequality is one of
the highest in the world. The newest programme, Brazil sem Miséria (Brazil without
Misery), which has incorporated the former Zero Hunger Strategy, through a series of
programmes, envisages promoting progress towards socially equitable growth, eradicating
extreme poverty by 2014.7
22. Brazil embarked on numerous cooperation projects, as a way of sharing with other
countries, valuable lessons learned from its successful experiences as well as the challenges
it faced in its implementation of social policies. Policymakers involved in these cooperation
projects also believe the engagement of the country with other partners is a two-way
learning process because Brazil has also learned from its partner countries’ own
experiences of successes and challenges, no matter what their economic situation. In fact,
the Brazilian Foreign Ministry has emphasized that Brazil’s actions on the international
stage have been driven by a sense of solidarity. Brazil is convinced that it is possible to
4 Ibid.
5 Interview with Minister of Foreign Affairs, Celso Amorim at
http://portal.saude.gov.br/portal/arquivos/pdf/entrevista_celso_amorim.pdf.
6 See http://www.mncr.org.br/.
7 For more information on the programme see Brasil sem Miséria website in Portuguese only at
http://www.brasilsemmiseria.gov.br.
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GE.13-11829 7
have a humanist foreign policy, without losing sight of the national interest.8 The so-called
“Solidarity Diplomacy” has been the driving force in this process.
23. The positive impact of the innovative approach in Brazilian cooperation has resulted
in requests from numerous countries for Brazil’s support under South-South cooperation
projects as well at the multilateral level, including with the United Nations under the
modality of triangular cooperation. This report focuses on international cooperation
initiatives particularly in the fields of agriculture and food security, health and the social
determinant of health, education and social protection, and their impact on the realization of
human rights.
IV. Constitutional principles governing Brazil’s foreign policy
24. The 1988 Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil9 in its preamble
encapsulates the commitment of the Brazilian people to solidarity. It states:
We, the representatives of the Brazilian People, convened in the national constituent
assembly to institute a democratic state for the purpose of ensuring the exercise of
social and individual rights, liberty, security, well-being, development, equality and
justice as supreme values of a fraternal, pluralist and unprejudiced society, founded
on social harmony and committed, in the internal and international orders, to the
peaceful settlement of disputes, promulgate, under the protection of God, this
Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
25. Article 1 states the key elements of the foundation of the Federative Republic of
Brazil as the following: I – sovereignty; II – citizenship; III – the dignity of the human
person; IV – the social values of labour and of the free enterprise; V – political pluralism.
Article 3 states that fundamental objectives of the Federative Republic of Brazil are: I – to
build a free, just and solidary society; II – to guarantee national development; III – to
eradicate poverty and substandard living conditions and to reduce social and regional
inequalities; IV – to promote the well-being of all, without prejudice as to origin, race, sex,
colour, age and any other forms of discrimination. It also captures the essence of human
rights.
26. The 1988 Constitution lays down a number of principles that govern Brazilian
international relations, among which are national independence, the prevalence of human
rights, self-determination, non-intervention, and cooperation among peoples for the
progress of mankind. These principles are underpinned by the solidarity of Brazilian
society, which is also enshrined in the Constitution, and together are applied in building a
policy of international cooperation integrated into foreign policy goals.
27. These Constitutional principles that govern international relations have shaped the
features of Brazilian cooperation in the spirit of solidarity, as Brazil seeks to contribute to
the social and economic progress of other countries through the sharing of lessons learned,
knowledge gained from successful experiences, and best practices. Brazil makes use of
solutions created and developed domestically to support other countries facing similar
difficulties in overcoming obstacles to their development.
8 Statement by H.E. Ambassador Celso Amorim, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Federative
Republic of Brazil at the Opening of the General debate of the sixty-fifth Session of the United
Nations General Assembly, New York, 23 September 2010.
9 http://bd.camara.gov.br/bd/bitstream/handle/bdcamara/1344/constituicao_ingles_3ed.pdf .
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28. Brazilian cooperation is based on requests received from other countries, with
paramount consideration given to their specific needs, as well as in response to
humanitarian appeals from international specialized agencies. There are no conditions
imposed and it is not profit-oriented. The cooperation is driven by solidarity and adheres to
the requirements of the Brazilian Constitution on non-intervention, respect for sovereignty
and self-determination.
29. The head of the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) described Brazilian
cooperation as an exchange between equals, rather than an interaction between donor and
recipient. Brazilian cooperation is in the image of the Brazilian people, a nation with mixed
societies that live in peace. They are in many ways idealistic, and despite the poverty, a
strong feeling of solidarity, rather than pity, prevails. Cooperation should be seen as more
than solving problems; it is a dialogue between nations and peoples to address problems
together.
30. An important feature of Brazilian technical cooperation is that both partners learn
from each other in the exchange of experiences and knowledge, affirming reciprocal
solidarity among peoples. Partner countries are not passive recipients but are actively
involved right from the stage of negotiation, ensuring that cooperation methodology is
appropriate to the context of the local reality.
V. Brazilian International Cooperation and Solidarity Initiatives
31. The Brazilian Cooperation Agency, which is affiliated with the Ministry of External
Relations, is the agency mandated to negotiate, coordinate, implement and monitor
technical cooperation programmes in which Brazil participates. ABC provides guidance to
other Brazilian agencies regarding cooperation opportunities involving Brazil, supporting
the preparation of projects, coordinating negotiations between the parties involved,
monitoring and evaluating project implementation, and publicizing information on project
development and results. This has made it possible to propagate technical knowledge from
Brazilian institutions to their counterparts in more than 80 developing countries. It therefore
requires a commitment to cooperation on the part of public agencies and entities, private
universities and civil society organizations involved in the partnership.
32. Brazilian international technical cooperation is a demand-driven process based on
solidarity between developing countries, with the aim of helping partner countries to
strengthen their institutions and human resources. Thus, the main goal of Brazilian South-
South technical cooperation is capacity development. Partner countries benefit from an
effective transfer of knowledge, and from the exchange of experiences previously
developed under similar socio-economic realities.
33. Technical cooperation, scholarships for foreigners, international humanitarian
cooperation, and contribution to international organizations are the main modalities of what
Brazil defines as Brazilian cooperation for international development. Agriculture, food
security and nutrition, health, education and vocational training are the key areas of
cooperation. Brazilian cooperation in Africa also aims to strengthen relations with African
Portuguese-speaking countries (Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa (PALOP)):
Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and Sao Tome and Principe. The key
focus for Asian cooperation projects is in Timor-Leste, with an emphasis on agriculture and
food security, education, the judicial system, vocational training and public administration.
Brazil has recently initiated relations with four Asian countries that belong to the Group of
Least Developed Countries (LDCs: Afghanistan, Cambodia, the Lao People’s Democratic
Republic and Myanmar.
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34. South-South cooperation contributes to consolidating the relations of Brazil with
partner countries as it enhances general interchange; generates, disseminates and applies
technical knowledge; builds human resource capacity; and, mainly, strengthens institutions
in all nations involved while at the same time reinforcing public policies in Brazil.
Brazilian cooperation agreements are in place with 30 developing countries in South,
Central and North America and the Caribbean. It also maintains technical cooperation
programmes with 38 African countries, 22 of which belong to the group of LDCs.
35. Brazil implements triangular technical cooperation guided by the same principles
that inform its South-South cooperation. Triangular cooperation makes it possible to match
the comparative advantage from South-South cooperation and other development partners
(bilateral and multilateral), leveraging the impact of knowledge sharing between developing
countries. These factors result in greater positive impact in fostering local development
processes. Brazil has implemented or is implementing agreements of triangular cooperation
with the United States, the European Union and a number of its members, Japan, and in
countries in Africa and in Latin America and the Caribbean. United Nations agencies are
also playing an important role in Brazilian international cooperation, including the
International Labour Organization (ILO, the United Nations Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the United Nations
Population Fund. The World Health Organization (WHO), UNAIDS, the United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for
Human Rights and the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of
Women (UN-Women) are also partnering with Brazil in support of South-South
cooperation initiatives.
36. Brazil is also engaged in other modalities of cooperation consistent with the
principles applied to their other forms of cooperation and which are presently in the initial
phase of implementation, including the following:
(a) In the interregional context, the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum
(IBSA)10 created in 2003 by the three countries, established the IBSA Fund for Alleviation
of Poverty and Hunger, a pioneer initiative created in 2004 with the purpose of identifying
replicable and scalable projects that can be jointly adapted and implemented in interested
developing countries. Best practices of the three countries are shared with LDCs through
projects financed by the IBSA Fund, in areas such as agriculture development and food
security, safe drinking water, health care and infrastructure, waste collection and recycling,
and building capacity to combat HIV/AIDS. Also in the interregional sphere, three
important initiatives with growing importance are the Africa-South America Summit, Arab
Countries-South America Summit, and the Forum for Dialogue and Cooperation between
East Asia and Latin America. In addition, the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation and the
Brazil-Russian-India-China and South Africa Summit (BRICS) have been established.11
(b) In the regional context, Brazil is engaged in three integration projects with
different levels of cooperation. They are the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR)
composed of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay,12 Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic of
Venezuela; the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) consisting of the 12
countries of the subcontinent, and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
(CELAC),13 a major project that recently began implementation and including all the 33
countries of the region, with the first summit after its establishment taking place in January
2013 in Santiago, Chile.
10 See http://www.ibsa-trilateral.org.
11 For detailed information see http://www.itamaraty.gov.br.
12 Paraguay has been suspended since June 2012.
13 See http://www.itamaraty.gov.br/temas/america-do-sul-e-integracao-regional/celac.
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VI. Good practices in international solidarity and cooperation
37. Good practices are cited in this report on the basis that their outcomes carry great
potential for providing an enabling environment for the realization of human rights.
A. Empowering women: towards realizing gender equality
38. Brazil has successfully implemented policies and measures in combating violence
against women, including sexual violence, achieving progress in health and education as
well as social assistance, which have become important examples for policies in these
fields. June 19, 2012, during the Rio +20 Conference, was marked by the signing ceremony
of the Implementing Programme between UN-Women, through the UN-Women Office in
Brazil, and the Brazilian Cooperation Agency of the Ministry of External Relations, for the
promotion of South-South technical cooperation and the Brazil UN-Women Partnership
Programme for the promotion of South-South cooperation in gender equality. Through this
project, Brazil will share its experiences in the field of gender equality and women
empowerment with African, Latin American and Caribbean countries.
39. According to the Brazilian Cooperation Agency “the implementation of the
Partnership Programme will take into account the Brazilian South-South cooperation
principles, based on the dissemination and exchange of successful experiences, good
practices, and lessons learned in Brazil, to be shared and adapted to the situation and local
needs of each country in the light of requests received”. In Haiti, Brazil is helping the
construction of a Centre of Reference and Assistance for women and a Police Station for
women, and is also supporting the preparation of a national plan for women in Haiti.
B. Social protection: towards realizing the right to an adequate standard
of living
40. Brazil has a longstanding experience with public policies for social protection. It
began in the 1930s with the Labour Code, which consolidated labour laws in the country. In
the past decades, it has progressively incorporated new labour sectors.14 The Constitution of
1988 launched a model of Social Security based on citizenship rights with the goal of a
broad social protection system that would coordinate contributory, non-contributory and
targeted policies. The Constitution has three key components: Social Insurance
(contributive pensions), Health (Unified National Health System) and Social Assistance.
41. In recent decades, income inequality has persisted in many countries throughout the
world, despite the decline in absolute poverty. (See the report of the Secretary-General on
the role of the United Nations in promoting a new global human order and an assessment of
the implications of inequality for development (A/67/394)). Being one of the most unequal
countries in the world, Brazil is particularly challenged, as 16 million of its citizens are still
living in extreme poverty despite its achievement in the last few years, during which time
28 million Brazilians crossed the absolute poverty line and 36 million entered the so-called
middle class. In order to face this challenge, Brazil launched in June 2011, the Brasil Sem
Miséria (Brazil without Misery) plan.15 The programme is coordinated by the Ministry of
14 Ministry of Social Development, 2009 available at
http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/documents/gasecond/2009/Filho.pdf.
15 See Brasil sem Miséria at http://www.brasilsemmiseria.gov.br.
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GE.13-11829 11
Social Development and Fight Against Hunger16 and involves more than 10 ministries, thus
placing social policies at the core of its economic development strategy.
42. Previous initiatives to fight poverty such as the Bolsa Família Programme and the
Programme for the Acquisition of Food (Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos) were
expanded and reinvigorated. Brasil Sem Miséria also introduced novelties such as the Bolsa
Verde Programme (Green Purse), the Incentive to Rural Productive Activities (Fomento às
Atividades Produtivas Rurais) and the Brasil Carinhoso Action – a drastic measure that
allows the immediate reduction of 40 per cent in the number of families in a situation of
extreme poverty, with 2.7 million children from 0 to 6 years of age being saved from
misery.17 It also has a Busca Ativa strategy adopted by Brasil Sem Miséria to find and
register all extremely poor families that have not yet been located. The Brasil Sem Miséria
plan has three main axis of action: (a) the income guarantee axis, which refers to transfers
for the immediate relief of the extreme poverty situation; (b) the productive inclusion axis,
which offers job and income opportunities to the plan’s target public; and (c) the access to
public services axis, for the provision or expansion of actions of citizenship and social
welfare.
43. Social policies have contributed to the creation of a dynamic domestic market led by
the middle-class and which generated certain resilience. Two public policy systems were
created with universal coverage: the Unified Social Assistance System and the National
System on Food and Nutritional Security. The Bolsa Família Programme, a conditional
cash transfer programme, launched in October 2003 and instituted by Federal Law, sets the
strategic axis for the integration of policies and actions that are part of the Brazilian Social
Protection and Promotion Network.
44. Given the positive results achieved in recent years, the Brazilian Government,
through its Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger, has been encouraged
to put a special effort on social policy technology transfer, and to strengthen social
development beyond its borders, putting into practice the so-called diplomacy of social
policy that is presently being implemented. International cooperation in the social field is
guided by (a) a focus on building institutional capacities in partner countries; (b) the
multiplier effect in cooperation projects; (c) cultural and linguistic similarities; and (d) the
transfer of social technology adaptable to local contexts.
45. A few examples of ongoing cooperation include:
(a) The Brazil-Africa Programme for cooperation on social protection, the
outcome of a partnership between the Ministry of Social Development, the United
Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID) and the International Policy
Centre for Inclusive Growth. The cooperation was developed in four areas: regional
technical cooperation, technical assistance, study missions and distance learning. The
countries involved are Angola, Ghana and Mozambique.
(b) Promotion of the right to adequate food through the reduction of social and
food vulnerability of populations in African countries. This is accomplished by
strengthening programmes for local purchase of food supply, such as government and
United Nations agencies’ strategy for assistance and food aid, including school feeding
programmes, and also for humanitarian purposes, as in the case of the Agriculture Food
Purchase Programme (PAA) Africa Programme. Partner countries are Côte d’Ivoire,
Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Kenya, Rwanda, Senegal and Zimbabwe.
16 See http://www.mds.gov.br.
17 See http://www.mds.gov.br/brasilsemmiseria/brasil-carinhoso.
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12 GE.13-11829
(c) Cooperation between Brazil, the United Kingdom and Ghana to support the
design of the Livelihoods Empowerment against Poverty programme of the Government of
Ghana.
(d) In El Salvador: (a) a programme for promoting the institutional strengthening
of entities involved in social policy management and implementation; (b) optimization of
the decentralized management of social policies and programmes; promotion of the
intersectoral commitment of all stakeholders to mobilize local, regional, national and
international resources for implementation and management of social programmes and
policies; (c) support for the formulation process of a normative proposal for the
institutionalization of the Salvadoran social protection system; (d) the creation of
mechanisms to improve the dialogue between Government and civil society; (e)
improvement of effective capacity of Salvadoran social policies and programme managers;
and (f) integration of the children and adolescents protection system in the country.
46. In 2007, the Brazilian Government and the International Labour Organization
launched an initiative to promote specific South-South technical cooperation projects and
activities that contribute effectively to the prevention and elimination of child labour, in
accordance with the international obligations of each country.
47. A significant example of South-South solidarity is the IBSA Dialogue Forum, a
major trilateral development initiative which has been a major driver of South-South
cooperation and exchanges in social policies among the IBSA member countries and other
countries. In a 2010 Summit, IBSA leaders reiterated the need to promote a job-intensive
recovery from the economic slowdown and to create a framework for sustainable growth
and a strong cooperation between ILO and IBSA countries. An IBSA International
Conference on South-South Cooperation Innovations in Public Employment Programmes
and Sustainable Inclusive Growth was held in New Delhi from 1 to 3 March 2012 to (a)
share knowledge between countries; (b) ensure better cohesion for overall inclusive growth
with equity; (c) contribute to the implementation of the Decent Work Agenda and its
strategic objectives in the fields of employment, social protection, work-related rights and
social dialogue; and (d) support and work with ILO’s South-South and Triangular
Cooperation Initiative to foster greater solidarity and enhance equality among countries and
peoples in the world of work.
48. Important initiatives are taking place also at the regional and subregional levels. One
example is the establishment of the Instituto de Políticas Públicas em Direitos Humanos do
MERCOSUL (Institute of Public Policy on Human Rights),18 a body of MERCOSUR,
which operates as a forum for technical cooperation, research and coordination of public
policies on human rights in the countries that make up this regional bloc.
C. Agriculture and food security: towards realizing the right to food
49. For decades Brazil, as one of largest agricultural producers and exporters in the
world, faced a challenging contradiction. At the same time that the country was celebrating
huge progress in agricultural terms, with its pioneering tropical agriculture research,
production increases at historical levels and economic progress, hunger still persisted and
represented a major social challenge. According to FAO’s estimates, some 16.7 million
Brazilians (10 per cent of the population) were chronically undernourished at the end of the
18 See http://www.ippdh.mercosur.int/.
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GE.13-11829 13
1990s.19 This challenge and developments in the past year have been well documented by
current and former special rapporteurs on the right to food.20
50. When elected for his first term, former President of Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
made eradication of hunger a key priority of his agenda, and a national cause. He called for
a great national movement to fight for this cause. A national policy, termed Zero Hunger
strategy, was implemented in 2003 with the aim of eradicating hunger by the end of the
President’s term. Zero Hunger was grounded on solidarity and implemented through a cash
transfer programme (Bolsa Família) and a major school meal programme that strengthened
family agriculture. The school meal programme was responsible for more than 70 per cent
of total food consumed in the country. The Agriculture Food Purchase Programme (PAA)
today buys 30 per cent of food for school meals, locally and from family farmers.
51. In 2006, a National Food and Nutritional Security Framework Law was approved by
the Brazilian Congress (Law 11.346).21 The law acknowledges that adequate food is a basic
human right and is indispensable in realizing other rights that are set forth in the country’s
federal Constitution.22 The debate and institutionalization of a policy for food and
nutritional security was considered as one of the most important achievements in the social
policies of the last few years. Key areas of focus are strengthening of family agriculture,
food supply and promotion of health and adequate food.
52. Brazilian foreign policy prioritized the fight against hunger and poverty as an
instrument for promoting international solidarity. In January 2004, the Presidents of Brazil,
Chile and France, with the support of the United Nations Secretary-General, launched an
initiative to fight hunger and poverty, calling on the international community to create new
sources of financing for development in order to make progress toward the achievement of
the Millennium Development Goals. A Summit of World Leaders for Action against
Hunger and Poverty was held later in September the same year on the eve of the General
Assembly. It adopted the New York Declaration on Action against Hunger and Poverty
signed by 111 national Governments23 stating that at the present stage of technological
progress and agricultural production worldwide, the persistence of this situation is
economically irrational, politically unacceptable and morally shameful and called for a
renewed political mobilization to fight these challenges.
53. Agriculture has become a central element of Brazilian cooperation along with health
and education among others. This cooperation is taking place with not only Southern but
also with Northern and multilateral partners, including the United Nations system. Food
security, genetic improvement, agricultural technology transfer, soil conservation, family
farming, rural development, irrigation, cooperatives, renewable and clean energy, and rural
development are examples of Brazil’s cooperation initiatives.
54. The agro-ecological and climate similarities between Africa and Brazil have
contributed to making agriculture one of the key axes of Brazilian solidarity diplomacy
with Africa. Since 2002, more than 50 agreements were signed with nearly 20 countries,
including Algeria, Angola, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique,
19 See FAO “Brazil: The hunger of the missed meal” at
http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/news/2003/13320-en.html.
20 Country missions to Brazil undertaken by the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food are available at
http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Food/Pages/Visits.aspx.
21 See also FAO, “Right to Food: Lessons Learned in Brazil”, p. 20 (2007),
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1331e/a1331e.pdf.
22 Ibid., p. 21.
23 The New York Declaration on action against hunger and poverty is available at
http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/IMG/pdf/Declaration_de_New_York_sur_l_action_contre_la_faim
_et_la_pauvrete_20_septembre_2004.pdf.
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14 GE.13-11829
Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, the United Republic of Tanzania and Tunisia24. An office
of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Enterprise (Embrapa) was established in Accra,
Ghana with a view to supporting the technological and productive improvement of
savannah agriculture in Africa.
55. In Latin America and Caribbean region, Brazilian experiences in agriculture are
providing examples for many initiatives under implementation in the regional and bilateral
cooperation under MERCOSUR, UNASUR and CELAC regional integration processes, in
areas such as family farming and transfer of technology, among others. The Hunger-Free
Latin America and the Caribbean Initiative draws from the Brazilian experience and is a
commitment by the countries and organizations of the region, with support from FAO, to
contribute actively in creating the conditions that will lead to the eradication of hunger
permanently by 2025.25
56. Brazil has also engaged in numerous agricultural cooperation projects in other
developing countries in partnership with donor countries. The ProSavanna Project is a
pioneer triangular partnership between Brazil, Japan and Mozambique to accelerate
agricultural growth in Mozambique through the development of improved seeds of soybean
and rice, improving soil health, and funding roads and other infrastructure. Agriculture
remains largely the key sector for social-economic development in the country employing
80 percent of the labour force.26 The EU–Brazil Strategic Partnership, set up in 2008,
started to explore opportunities for triangular cooperation with developing countries in the
field of agriculture, through promotion of innovation leading to a more efficient production
within African countries.27
57. In the United Nations, key agencies such as FAO, WFP and the International Fund
for Agricultural Development (IFAD) are engaged in cooperation projects and initiatives
with Brazil, which has become a major donor for international humanitarian cooperation in
Latin America, for example in the case of Haiti, Palestine and the countries in the Horn of
Africa. In 2011, WFP and the Government of Brazil launched a Centre of Excellence
Against Hunger based in Brasília, which will assist countries to improve, expand and
eventually run their own national school meal programmes.
The example of Embrapa
58. The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) under the Ministry of
Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, has been one of the most important actors in the
field of the country’s technical cooperation in agriculture. It was set up in 1973 with the
mission to provide research, development and innovation towards finding feasible solutions
for the sustainable development of agriculture for the benefit of Brazilian society. Embrapa
was established when Brazilian agriculture was marked by low production and yields,
economic instability, lack of specific knowledge about tropical agriculture and institutional
void, among other challenges.28 The establishment of Embrapa led to the building of a
pioneer research capability on agriculture in the country that has global dimensions.
24 See Brazil’s statement at the sixty-seventh session of the General Assembly debate on the New
Partnership for Africa’s Development: progress in implementation and international support. New
York, 17 October 2012.
25 See http://www.rlc.fao.org/en/initiative/the-initiative.
26 See the ProSavanna project at http://www.gatesfoundation.org/g20/Documents/pro-savannah-casestudy.
pdf.
27 See the Brazil-European Union Strategic Partnership Joint Action Plan at
http://eeas.europa.eu/brazil/docs/2008_joint_action_plan_en.pdf.
28 See http://www.iagre.org/sites/iagre.org/files/conferences/brazilag%20-%20for%20web.pdf.
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GE.13-11829 15
59. Today, Embrapa has 10,000 personnel including 2,500 researchers conducting
studies from technologies for family farming in the poorest north-east region of the country,
to highly advanced research such as nanotechnology. There are currently 45 Research
Centres on different themes all over the country, which have a presence through their socalled
virtual laboratories in the United States, France, the United Kingdom, the
Netherlands and the Republic of Korea. Physical offices have been established in the
Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and Ghana. Embrapa is contributing to the
democratization of knowledge in agricultural sciences and related areas.
60. Embrapa’s work has been key to the success of Brazilian tropical agriculture,
motivating other countries with similar problems and challenges to seek information and
partnership with Embrapa. International cooperation has been crucial in the establishment
and consolidation of Embrapa, today considered the most advanced tropical agriculture
research institute in the world.
61. It has a strong post-graduate programme, which has sent hundreds of young
professionals to the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Spain, the Netherlands,
Germany and Australia. Projects funded by the World Bank, Inter-American Development
Bank and the Japanese Government have been very important in financing this human
development programme and also in equipping the research units. Embrapa is a major
conduit for the cooperation of Brazil with a number of countries, to transfer its experiences
and technology, and to adapt these to local conditions in partner countries.
62. Brazil has shared with partner countries its expertise in access and food production –
(a) genetic improvement; (b) enhanced planting, irrigation and harvest methods; (c) use of
agricultural machinery; (d) animal husbandry; and (e) animal product processing – and in
marketing. It has sought to enhance food security and nutrition through strengthening
family agriculture, and has been particularly successful in establishing farmer cooperatives
in order to add value to their produce and to increase family income. Sharing of best
practices consolidated by the Brazilian Government with developing countries expands the
geographic scope of Brazilian cooperation and introduces policies and programmes that
were implemented successfully in Brazil to lift its people out of poverty. Brazilian
cooperatives are exemplars in the solidarity economy. The 1,600 agricultural cooperatives
in Brazil have almost a million members, generating 160,000 jobs and representing 30 per
cent of agricultural gross domestic product, with its agri-food exports bringing in revenues
of $6 billion in 2012.29 Brazil’s experience with cooperatives is now being shared with
African countries and has inspired similar models in other countries. The Brazilian
Cooperation Agency and the Brazilian Cooperatives Organization undertook a mission to
Botswana in 2011, to explore the possibilities of developing agricultural cooperatives in
that African country.
63. The Africa-Brazil Agricultural Innovation Marketplace initiative is a process that
focuses on generating benefits for smallholder farmers and producers. Its objective is to
enhance agricultural innovation for development on the African continent by establishing
and strengthening partnerships between African and Brazilian organizations.
64. The Marketplace will open a new source of expertise to Africa, to identify and target
pro-poor, smallholder-based project utilizing Brazilian innovation research. The
Marketplace was developed by Embrapa and the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa
(FARA), with support from the United Kingdom’s DFID, IFAD, the World Bank, the ABC,
and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. This South-South collaboration with active
Northern support is making an important contribution to more productive agriculture and
29 Information provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Supply, FAO and Organization of
Brazilian Cooperatives.
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16 GE.13-11829
more affordable food for the poor in Africa, complementing other ongoing efforts. The
same initiative has recently started implementation in another region, the Latin-American
and Caribbean (LAC) region. It is known as the LAC-Brazil Agricultural Innovation
Marketplace.
65. A programme to provide support for the development of the cotton industry in C4
Countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad and Mali), also known as the Cotton 4 Project, was
set up in 2008 with the official support of the Brazilian Government for the World Trade
Organization Cotton Initiative, brought forward by C4 countries as a result of their losses
due to subsidy policies used in the international cotton market. The objectives of the project
included (a) the development of the cotton industry in C4 countries; (b) the transfer of
Brazilian technology to increase the profitability of the cotton supply chain; and (c)
improvement of the quality of life, food security and nutrition levels in beneficiary
countries. Under the framework of this project, Brazil is also cooperating with Mali to
revitalize the Sotuba Research Centre outside of Bamako.
66. In 2012, the Brazilian Government signed a project with FAO aiming to provide
financial support for a new local food purchase programme to be set up by FAO and WFP.
The programme will initially benefit small farmers and vulnerable populations in five
African countries – Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger and Senegal.30 The project
envisages the sharing of Brazil’s experiences with its own national Agriculture Food
Purchase Programme (PAA), a programme that buys agricultural products from
smallholders and delivers them to at-risk categories, including children and youth, through
school feeding programmes. The PAA is considered by FAO to be a cornerstone of the
country’s Zero Hunger strategy.
D. Health and the social determinants of health: towards realizing the
right to health
67. The Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988 established health as a right of all
citizens and a public duty leading to strong policy on the right to universal access to health
services. It reflected the strong commitment of the Government and support by civil society
through a well-organized social movement mobilization. The Unified Health System (SUS)
was created as the primary network of public health institutions aiming to provide, finance
and manage health services. SUS is one of the largest public health systems in the world,
with a wide coverage, from outpatient care to complex procedures such as organ
transplants, guaranteeing full, universal and free access for the entire country’s
population.31 Policy also focused on prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, with a
compulsory licensing of patents related to an anti-retroviral medicine used by the National
STD/AIDS Programme being implemented in 2007 to ensure free treatment for all
Brazilians infected with HIV/AIDS.
68. Currently, SUS attends to the care of 145 million citizens32 and represents a world
example of universal health coverage programme funded through solidarity taxes
representing its citizens’ contribution to the public budget. The programme is oriented by
the principles of universal access, equality and integrity in the assistance, community
participation and decentralization. Brazil sees the right to health as a key element for
development and building of a more equal, inclusive and fair society.
30 Brazil to fund food purchasing in five African countries at
http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/123551/icode.
31 Survey of the Brazilian Cooperation for International Development 2005–2009.
32 Ministry of Health, 2012.
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GE.13-11829 17
1. Building strong public institutions: the case of Fiocruz
69. The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) was established in 1900 in Rio de Janeiro,
with the task of addressing public health problems in Brazil. Fiocoruz is attached to the
Ministry of Health and is considered as one of the leading science and technology health
institutions in the world. It is responsible for research, production of vaccines and
medicines, and controlling the quality of products and services. Its activities include
provision of hospital and outpatient services, implementation of social programmes,
teaching activities and the training and qualification of professionals and researchers.
Fiocruz mission is to promote health and social development, to forge and disseminate
scientific and technological knowledge, and to be an agent of citizenship.
70. Fiocruz has become renowned as a leading research centre for the control of diseases
such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. It manufactures pharmaceutical products for
SUS. With one of the largest public pharmaceutical laboratories in the country – the Drug
Technology Institute (Farmanguinhos) – Fiocruz has achieved vast experience in
production technologies for drugs used in HIV/AIDS treatment. Fiocruz is presently
involved in the establishment of an antiretroviral production plant in Mozambique. The
project includes multidisciplinary implementation such as training of local technical staff in
surveillance, inspection, certification and control of medication, and also its production and
commercialization processes, so that the Mozambican regulatory agency can efficiently
implant the antiretroviral (ARV) production plant.
71. Brazil’s first Human Milk Bank (HMB) was opened in 1943 as a result of research,
technology development, teaching and consultancy work by Fiocruz. HMBs have
developed to become what is known today as the world’s largest and most complex HMB
network, the foremost Government strategy to reduce infant mortality. It is a model that
combines high reliability and technical accuracy at a low operating cost. In 2001, WHO
awarded the HMB network for its major contribution in reducing infant mortality and
promoting breastfeeding in the 1990s. The Brazilian Cooperation Agency has 19 HMB
projects already being implemented in Latin America and the Caribbean, along with
initiatives of this Brazilian model in African countries. European countries such as Portugal
and Spain have also adopted the HMB technology initiated and developed by Brazil.
2. Engagement in global health diplomacy
72. Brazil believes that international solidarity should have a global perspective on
health and human rights, and has thus made a strong commitment to share its own
experiences and challenges through international cooperation towards strengthening
internal public health policies and practices worldwide. This conviction was expressed by
former President Lula da Silva in his early interaction with G8 leaders in his statement: “In
a globalized world, in which global threats come mainly from poverty, alienation and social
exclusion, solidarity is not only a moral duty, it is a display of enlightened self-interest.” 33
73. Brazil has since become a key player in health diplomacy by (a) defending universal
health coverage; (b) widening access to medicines, in particular for vulnerable
communities; (c) strengthening health systems; (d) combating chronic non-transmissible
diseases; (e) controlling tobacco; and (f) giving attention to the social determinants of
health. Health was placed at the core of the Action against Hunger and Poverty, launched in
2004 by President Lula da Silva and other world leaders in New York, where the President
stated that health was key to development and to combating poverty.34 Together with
France, Chile, Norway and the United Kingdom, Brazil has launched the International Drug
33 Statement by the Foreign Minister of Brazil, Ambassador Celso Amorim, at the Sixtieth World Health
Assembly — Geneva, 15 May 2007 – http://www.brazil.org.uk/press/speeches_files/20070515.html.
34 See footnote 29.
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18 GE.13-11829
Purchase Facility, UNITAID.35 This initiative marked a major example of the potential of
international solidarity in creating an innovative mechanism to fund access to high-quality
drugs and the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.
74. Brazil was one of the countries that led the initiative on Global Health and Foreign
Policy, launched in September 2006 in New York, on the sidelines of the General
Assembly, which led to the Oslo Ministerial Declaration a year later, urgently calling for a
more expansive foreign policy to create a new paradigm of cooperation, and outlining the
linkages between foreign policy and health.36 In 2011, Brazil hosted the WHO World
Conference on Social Determinants of Health. The Rio Political Declaration on Social
Determinants of Health that was consequently adopted, was a global political commitment
to reduce health inequities and to achieve other global priorities by building momentum
within countries for the development of dedicated national action plans and strategies.37
3. Bringing the health agenda across borders
75. Health is a priority both on the Brazilian domestic agenda and for international
cooperation, where it applies its structural approach, characterized by efforts to develop
individual and institutional capacity in partner countries, with sustainable results. Health as
a right of all and as a duty of the State, drives Brazilian cooperation, and is implemented
based on mutual respect and a commonly agreed agenda.
76. The main Brazilian cooperation projects in Africa and South America focus on
human resource training, capacity-building in research, teaching or services, and on
strengthening or setting up health system institutions, including ministries of health,
schools of public health, national health institutes, faculties for higher professional training,
polytechnic health colleges, technological development, and production institutes and
factories. The public health system of Brazil and its international health cooperation are
based on the principle of universal access to the public health system.
77. In the regional context, Brazil has advocated for a strong regional cooperation on
health. It took the lead in establishing the South American Institute of Government in
Health (ISAGS) with its main office in Rio de Janeiro. ISAGs,38 inaugurated in 2011, is an
intergovernmental entity and a member of the South American Health Council of the Union
of South American Nations (UNASUR).39 ISAGs is a key institution for strengthening
coordination and exchange between the health authorities and other Government
authorities. The focus areas of the UNASUR Five-Year Health Plan are the South
American health vigilance and response network, universal health system development,
universal access to medication, health promotion and health determinants, human resources
and management. Committed to implementing the South American Health Agenda and the
scope of priorities in the UNASUR 2010–2015 Five-Year Health Plan, ISAGS accordingly
focuses its actions on the following strategies: (a) interchange and training of human
resources; (b) lines of research and diagnostics; (c) accumulation and dissemination of
knowledge on governance in health; (d) organization of the supply and demand for
cooperation; and (e) promotion of networking.
78. A trilateral agreement between Haiti, Cuba and Brazil is focused on the
implementation of Haitian health structures, the establishment of a national outpatient
35 See http://www.unitaid.eu/fr/.
36 Brazil’s conception of South-South “structural cooperation” in health, Review Global Forum Update
on Research for Health − Innovating for the health of all, 2009, Vol. 6: 100-107.
37 Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 21 October 2011
available from http://www.who.int/sdhconference/declaration/Rio_political_declaration.pdf.
38 See http://isags-unasul.org/interna.asp?lang=2&idArea=1&idSubArea=34.
39 See http://www.unasursg.org/.
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GE.13-11829 19
system, the training of health workers, especially middle-level staff that the system urgently
needs, and the control of infectious diseases. It involves the complete rebuilding of the
health system to make it more capable of meeting the health needs of the Haitian people.
The day after the earthquake, parameters were established to guide the reconstruction of the
Haitian health system. One of the aims of the agreement is the provision of universal
access, and the achievement thereof is based on the population’s wish to participate in the
rebuilding of the country and its ability to develop innovative forms of solidarity.
E. The full development of the person: towards realizing the right to
education
79. The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declared education as a right of all, and duty of
the State and of the family, to be promoted and fostered with the cooperation of society,
with a view to the full development of the person, his preparation for the exercise of
citizenship and his qualification for work (Article 205).40 The Brazilian Constitution of
1946 had already stated in its article 166 that education was a right of all which should be
inspired by the principles of freedom and ideals of human solidarity,41 both endorsed in the
later National Education and Guidelines Framework Law adopted in 1996.42
80. In an effort to ensure the education of Brazilians, social programmes recently
implemented have included education as a key element. This is the case of the Bolsa
Família, in which beneficiaries must accomplish certain requirements, including school
enrolment and minimum attendance. A programme called PROUNI43 was implemented to
enable poor students to have access to higher education through grants that cover their
costs. Recent developments in the field of education include a new Government policy
requiring the 56 public federal universities to guarantee 50 per cent of their admissions to
be filled by students coming from public secondary schools. Special attention has also been
given to ethnic groups with lower participation in higher education such as Afro-Brazilians.
The Open University of Brazil44 has been created to offer distance education.
81. A pioneer programme for international exchange and mobility in higher education is
being implemented under the Ciência sem fronteiras programme (Science without Borders)
established in 2012.45 The strategy is to (a) increase the presence of students, scientists and
industry personnel from Brazil in international institutions of excellence, negotiating the
extension of support from the private sector for the payment of the fees involved or the
exemption of these fees with universities or local governments; (b) encourage young talents
and highly qualified researchers from abroad to work with local investigators in joint
projects, contributing to the capacitation of human resources and promoting the return of
Brazilian scientists working overseas; and (c) induce the internationalization of universities
and research centres in Brazil by encouraging the establishment of international
partnerships and a meaningful review of their internal procedures in order to make the
interaction with foreign partners feasible. The programme aims to provide 75,000 grants
offered by the federal Government and another 26,000 will be offered by the private sector,
which reinforces the role of private sector in supporting Government actions on science and
technology development.
40 Text of the Brazilian Constitution 1988 available from
http://bd.camara.gov.br/bd/bitstream/handle/bdcamara/1344/constituicao_ingles_3ed.pdf.
41 Article 166 of the Brazilian Constitution 1946.
42 See http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/L9394.htm.
43 See http://siteprouni.mec.gov.br/.
44 See http://www.uab.capes.gov.br/.
45 Ciência sem Fronteiras (Science without Borders) programme –
http://www.cienciasemfronteiras.gov.br.
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82. Two federal universities were created with regional and interregional dimensions
and are examples of solidarity cooperation undertaken by Brazil in the field of education.
The Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana (UNILA),46 located in Foz do
Iguaçu in the State of Paraná was established in 2010. The objective of the university is to
pursue interregional trans-disciplinary research and teaching in the areas of joint interest of
MERCOSUR member countries47 focusing, for example, on the use of natural resources,
trans-border biodiversity, social sciences and linguistic research and international relations,
as well as relevant disciplines for strategic development. Half of its student quota is for
Brazilians, while the other half is for other Latin Americans subsidized by Brazil.
83. The Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira
(UNILAB),48 is another example of cooperation solidarity and a boost for South-South
cooperation in higher education.49 It is based in Redenção, in the north-east of Brazil, a
place with historical importance as it was the first city to abolish slavery in Brazil. Half its
students are Brazilian, and half are from Portuguese-speaking African countries, subsidized
by Brazil. The teaching staff is comprised of Brazilian and African professors. In five years,
UNILAB expects to have 5,000 Brazilian and African students in undergraduate and
graduate courses in the fields of Health, Agronomy, Teacher Training, Engineering and
Public Administration.50 In October 2012, UNILAB and the Brazilian Cooperation Agency
signed an agreement to implement a pioneer project to provide the structuring of the
network’s cultural and academic cooperation through partnerships with universities and
research centres in the eight Portuguese-speaking countries of the Community of
Portuguese-Speaking Countries (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa).51
VII. Concluding remarks
84. The Independent Expert reiterates her sincere appreciation to the Government
of Brazil for the gracious hospitality and openness of all its officials and personnel
who willingly gave of their time to share their experience and knowledge, contributing
greatly to the success of the first country study mission of this mandate on human
rights and international solidarity.
85. The Independent Expert commends the Government of Brazil for its policy and
practice of solidarity that define its international cooperation programme in all its
modalities, both in South-South and triangular cooperation contexts. She finds it
remarkable how consistently solidarity was credited as the driving force of Brazilian
cooperation, across all ministries and offices of Government she visited. More than
simply solving problems, cooperation was seen as a dialogue between nations and
peoples to address problems together, fostering equality and mutual respect.
86. The Independent Expert notes with admiration how Brazilian society is
strongly attached to the values and principles of solidarity that are enshrined in its
46 See UNILA website at http://www.unila.edu.br .
47 MERCOSUR is composed by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The Bolivarian Republic of
Venezuela has been a full member since July 2012 and Paraguay has been suspended since June
2012.
48 International Integration University of African-Brazilian Portuguese-speaking Countries (UNILAB) –
http://www.unilab.edu.br/.
49 Ibid.
50 The Brazilian Example of the New Afro-Brazilian University: Foreign Policy, Innovation and South-
South Cooperation – http://www.guninetwork.org/resources/good-practices/good-practiceslisting/
the-brazilian-example-of-the-new-afro-brazilian-university-foreign-policy-innovation-andsouth-
south-cooperation/.
51 Information provided by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency.
A/HRC/23/45/Add.1
GE.13-11829 21
Constitution, and which have become the driving force in Brazil’s international
cooperation. Overcoming inequality and persistent poverty, along with the problems
rooted in them, will require time and enormous effort on the part of the Government
of Brazil and its people. These complex and interconnecting problems have spurred
the Government to respond with numerous innovative and multifaceted programmes
described in this report, designed to simultaneously address a number of concerns.
87. The Independent Expert has observed how these efforts to overcome
tremendous difficulties are sustained by a strong sense of solidarity, the same spirit
that has become the hallmark of Brazil’s international cooperation initiatives and that
has inspired others to reciprocate accordingly. Many of Brazil’s problems endure, but
many have also been overcome. Brazil deploys the lessons learned from both its
triumphs and failures, to enrich its international cooperation strategies upon request,
which its development partners have the free choice to adapt to their own context.
88. The international cooperation programme of Brazil described in this report in
the fields of agriculture and food security, health, social protection and education,
play an important role in creating a global impact towards the realization of human
rights, the goal of international solidarity in development cooperation. The
Independent Expert has observed how international solidarity in the case of Brazil
emanates from the experience of the national Government in implementing its
obligation to respect, protect and fulfil human rights within its own territories, and
shared with international development partners.
89. The first country study mission of the Independent Expert that took place in
Brazil has shown that international solidarity possesses instrumental value, while at
the same time it is an end in itself. It has also supported the value of best practices as
portals to the inherent interface between the policy and practice of international
solidarity and the realization of human rights, and how such good practices of
collective action on the ground—whether among individuals, groups of individuals or
States – ineluctably lead to desirable outcomes towards the realization of human
rights.

GE.13-11829 (S) 220313 280313Consejo de Derechos Humanos23º período de sesionesTema 3 de la agendaPromoción y protección de todos los derechos humanos,civiles, políticos, económicos, sociales y culturales,incluido el derecho al desarrolloInforme de la Experta independiente sobre los derechoshumanos y la solidaridad internacional, Virginia DandanAdiciónMisión al Brasil (25 a 29 de junio de 2012)*ResumenPor invitación del Gobierno del Brasil y en cumplimiento de su mandato, la Expertaindependiente sobre los derechos humanos y la solidaridad internacional realizó una misiónde estudio al Brasil del 25 al 29 de junio de 2012. Presentó un informe resumido de estamisión en su primer informe anual al Consejo de Derechos Humanos en su 21º período desesiones, en septiembre de 2012.Este informe final destaca las principales observaciones de la Experta independienteen el transcurso de su misión, cuyo propósito era intercambiar puntos de vista con lasautoridades y otros agentes implicados y recabar información sobre las experiencias delBrasil en solidaridad internacional, en particular en el contexto de sus actividades decooperación internacional.La Experta independiente acogió con satisfacción las iniciativas de cooperacióninternacional del Brasil en los ámbitos de la salud, la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición, laeducación, la tecnología agrícola y el desarrollo rural y en la lucha contra el hambre y lapobreza, entre otros. Estas iniciativas basadas en la solidaridad sirven de lecciones valiosaspara establecer un nuevo paradigma en la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. Lasexperiencias del Brasil dan muestra del valor de las mejores prácticas como portales de laconfluencia inherente entre la política y la práctica de la solidaridad internacional y elejercicio efectivo de los derechos humanos.* El resumen del presente informe se distribuye en todos los idiomas oficiales. El informe propiamentedicho figura en el anexo del resumen y se distribuye únicamente en el idioma en que se presentó.Naciones Unidas A/HRC/23/45/Add.1Asamblea General Distr. general12 de marzo de 2013EspañolOriginal: inglésA/HRC/23/45/Add.12 GE.13-11829Anexo[Inglés únicamente]Report of the Independent Expert on human rights andinternational solidarity on her mission to BrazilContentsParagraphs PageI. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1–6 3II. General overview: in search of good practices ………………………………………………. 7–18 4III. Solidarity in the Brazilian context………………………………………………………………… 19–23 6IV. Constitutional principles governing Brazil’s foreign policy …………………………….. 24–30 7V. Brazilian International Cooperation and Solidarity Initiatives………………………….. 31–36 8VI. Good practices in international solidarity and cooperation………………………………. 37–83 10A. Empowering women: towards realizing gender equality………………………….. 38–39 10B. Social protection: towards realizing the right to an adequate standardof living ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 40–48 10C. Agriculture and food security: towards realizing the right to food…………….. 49–66 12D. Health and the social determinants of health: towards realizing the rightto health ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 67–78 16E. The full development of the person: towards realizing the rightto education ………………………………………………………………………………………. 79–83 19VII. Concluding remarks …………………………………………………………………………………… 84–89 20A/HRC/23/45/Add.1GE.13-11829 3I. Introduction1. In his last report to the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/15/32, July 2010), theformer Independent Expert Rudi Muhammad Rizki stressed the selected areas of focus andemerging areas in which international solidarity should take a more central role, includingin sustainable development, Financing for Development and South-South cooperation. Inthis regard, he emphasized the importance of following major global summits andministerial meetings in the economic, social and climate fields with a view to promoting theright to international solidarity, and the conduct of country study visits to learn about andobserve, the various good practices undertaken by different actors. The current IndependentExpert, Ms. Virginia Dandan, recognizes that this view has important implications in hertask of preparing a draft declaration on the right of peoples and individuals to internationalsolidarity, to be presented to the Human Rights Council by 2014.2. The Independent Expert affirms that, while international cooperation plays a centralrole in international solidarity, international solidarity is not limited to internationalassistance and cooperation, aid, charity or humanitarian assistance. International solidarityshould be understood as a broader concept that includes (a) sustainability in internationalrelations, especially international economic relations; (b) the peaceful coexistence of allmembers of the international community; (c) equal partnerships and the equitable sharingof benefits and burdens; and (d) refraining from doing harm or posing obstacles to thegreater well-being of others, including in the international economic system and to ourcommon ecological habitat, for which all are responsible. A preventive solidarity must beput in place to confront global and local challenges, notably the alarming increase of naturaland man-made disasters, and the continuing rises in poverty and inequality. She also notesthat the notion of solidarity has defined the work of the United Nations since its inception,drawing together nations and peoples to promote peace and security, human rights anddevelopment. It is equally important to mention that the United Nations MillenniumDeclaration identified international solidarity as one of the fundamental valuesindispensable to international relations in the twenty-first century.13. In her statement to the Human Rights Council,2 Ms. Dandan expressed her view thatsolidarity “… is a persuasion that combines differences and opposites, holds them togetherinto one heterogeneous whole, and nurtures it with the universal values of human rights.International solidarity therefore does not seek to homogenize but rather, to be the bridgeacross those differences and opposites, connecting to each other diverse peoples andcountries with their heterogeneous interests, in mutually respectful, beneficial andreciprocal relations, imbued with the principles of human rights, equity and justice”.4. International solidarity is an elusive concept, and is particularly resistant todefinition, rendering it almost an abstraction. But where it exists, it is unmistakable,permeating thought and action, its effects observable. Therefore, the task of developingnorms and standards for what will eventually lead to the formulation of a draft declarationof the right of peoples and individuals to international solidarity, calls for dialogue withStates, United Nations and other international agencies, and as many stakeholders aspossible.1 General Assembly resolution 55/2 (www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm).2 “The International Solidarity, The Right to Development and the Agents of Change”, Human RightsCouncil panel on “The Way Forward in the Realization of the Right to Development: Between Policyand Practice”, seventh plenary meeting, eighteenth session of the Human Rights Council, 14September 2011, available at http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Solidarity/Pages/Statements.aspx.A/HRC/23/45/Add.14 GE.13-118295. Beyond this important consideration, it is critical to take into account the policy andactual practice of States, which are the vital conduits of international solidarity, and ofinternational cooperation. The Independent Expert therefore considers that the mosteffective and appropriate way to understand policy on, and practice of, internationalsolidarity is through empirical methods of study and observation on the ground.6. In this context, the mission to Brazil, the first-ever conducted by this mandate,considered specific modalities arising from broad subject areas related to internationalsolidarity such as (a) strategies and programmes relating to the attainment of theMillennium Development Goals, in particular Goal 8 (global partnerships), informed by agender perspective in all areas of concern; (b) elements of “solidarity diplomacy” andinternational cooperation initiatives including transfer of technology and building capacityin least developed countries (LDCs), cultural, scientific and educational exchange andscholarship programmes; (c) national-level implementation of political commitments tointernational agreements.II. General overview: in search of good practices7. In the present report, the Independent Expert documents the observations of herstudy visit to Brazil from 25 to 29 June 2012, for the purpose of exchanging views with theGovernment, civil society, academia, and regional and international stakeholders, to gatherinformation on the experiences of Brazil in international solidarity, including and inparticular in the context of its international cooperation activities. This report complementsthe summary version presented to the twenty-first session of the Human Rights Councilheld in September 2012 (A/HRC/21/44).8. The study visit was facilitated by the Office of the United Nations ResidentCoordinator and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, who were focal points of thevisit, which took place for the most part in the capital city of Brasilia, home to Governmentministries and agencies. The Independent Expert, being in Rio de Janeiro in the previousweek to attend the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), wasable to intersperse her activities at the Conference, with visits to a Government institutionand to a regional agency whose offices are based in Rio de Janeiro. Subsequent to her visit,the Independent Expert continued her engagement with Government officials to gatherfurther information on recent developments prior to the submission of this report.9. The Independent Expert valued the warm reception she received from theGovernment of Brazil and its institutions dealing with international cooperation, as well asits openness in discussing a range of topics relevant to her mandate. She notes withappreciation that – while the Government officials she met with expressed their pride, andrightfully so, when speaking of the numerous high profile achievements of Brazil, includingthe attainment of a number of Millennium Development Goals well before the deadline of2015 – they also readily acknowledged and identified the many difficulties and obstaclesthat remain to be addressed and surmounted.310. During the mission, the Independent Expert met with officials of Governmentengaged in policy matters and activities in international cooperation. At the Ministry ofForeign Affairs in Brasilia, she met with (a) the Director of the Brazilian CooperationAgency (ABC); (b) the Secretary for Cooperation and Trade Promotion; (c) the Under-Secretary General for Political Affairs; (d) the Under-Secretary General for Policy; (e) theDirector of the Department of the Environment and Special Themes; (f) the Director of the3 United Nations Development Programme, Millennium Development Goals Progress Reports – LatinAmerica and the Caribbean, August 2010.A/HRC/23/45/Add.1GE.13-11829 5Department of Human Rights and Social Affairs; (g) International Advisors at theSecretariat for Human Rights; (h) Secretary for Policies for Promotion of Racial Equality;(i) the Secretary for Policies for Women; (j) the General Coordinator of InternationalActions against Hunger and his team; (k) the Head of the Division of EducationalCooperation; and (l) the Head of the Division of Science, Technology and Innovation.11. At Government ministries in Brasilia, the Independent Expert met with (a) theSecretary of Labour Inspection and her team; (b) the General Coordinator for Cooperationof the Ministry of Health and his team; (c) the Chief of the International Advisory Council;(d) officials of the International Department of the Ministry of Social Development andFight Against Hunger; (e) officials of the Secretariat for Science and Technology and forSocial Inclusion; (f) the International Advisor to the Ministry of Science, Technology andInnovation; (g) the Technical Cooperation Coordinator of the Brazilian AgriculturalResearch Corporation (Embrapa); (h) the Ministry of Agriculture; (i) the Division Managerof the Bank of Brazil Foundation; and (j) the Chief Counsel for International Affairs andTrade Promotion of the Ministry of Agrarian Development.12. At the Presidency of the Republic, the Independent Expert met with the SpecialAdvisor to the Foreign Policy Unit of the Office of the President of Brazil and his team.She also met with the President of the Institute for Applied Economic Research and herteam. She attended the National Council on Food Security, where she made a briefpresentation on her mandate and the objectives of her study visit.13. At the Brazilian Congress, the Independent Expert met with the Chair of the HumanRights Committee of the Senate and the Vice-Chair of the Human Rights Committee of theLower House. She also met with another Member of Parliament who was twice Chair of theCommittee. A meeting was also held with the Vice-President of the Committee on ExternalRelations and Defence of the Senate, concurrently, president of the PermanentSubcommittee for Monitoring the Implementation of the Measures Adopted in Rio+20 andthe International Regime on Climate Change, and also former Minister of Education andrector of the University of Brasília.14. In Rio de Janeiro, the Independent Expert met with the Executive Director of theSouth American Institute of Government in Health (ISAGS), a former Minister of Health ofBrazil and his team, and with the Director of the Centre for International Relations of theOswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) and his colleagues.15. Consultation meetings were held with representatives of United Nations agencies inBrazil and with civil society organizations. A meeting was also held with the UnitedNations Resident Coordinator.16. The Independent Expert thanks all of the above for their courtesies and the timeshared with her. She is grateful to the following for their support and assistance: (a) Carlosda Cunha Oliveira and his team, the focal point at the Ministry of Foreign Affairsresponsible for the country study mission; (b) United Nations Resident Coordinator inBrazil Jorge Chediek and his team; and (c) Maria Nazareth Farani Azevêdo, PermanentRepresentative of Brazil to the United Nations in Geneva, and her team at the PermanentMission.17. The consultations and dialogues of the Independent Expert with officials of theGovernment of Brazil have been consolidated into this report, the primary considerationbeing given to the relevance of such information to the policy and practice of internationalsolidarity.18. The Independent Expert expresses her deep appreciation to the Government ofBrazil for providing her the opportunity to observe and learn first-hand what she had onlyA/HRC/23/45/Add.16 GE.13-11829previously read and heard about regarding the solidarity diplomacy of Brazil, which hasgenerated a growing interest on the part of the international community.III. Solidarity in the Brazilian context19. Brazil is one of the few countries in the world to have achieved most of theMillennium Development Goals ahead of the 2015 deadline.4 During the past decade, thecountry has embarked on a path of sustained economic growth and financial stability, withfull exercise of democracy and social inclusion resulting in considerable progress in itshuman rights agenda. Economic policies and innovative social policies implemented in thepast decade have contributed to lift 40 million Brazilians out of poverty, creating a robustmiddle class which today serves as the engine of growth in the country. A good example ofa successful social programme is the Bolsa Família, the largest cash transfer programme inthe world implemented under the Zero Hunger Strategy in 2003.20. Brazilians like to identify themselves as a solidarity nation.5 They claim thatsolidarity is expressed in the simple everyday practices of ordinary Brazilians and has beenincorporated into major social policies such as those implemented in the past decade tocombat socio-economic inequalities in the country. There is a common understandingamong everyone of the need to work together for a more equal and inclusive society. TheIndependent Expert observed in her visit a strong sense of unity pervading Braziliansociety, driving it towards a common goal of better conditions that will benefit allBrazilians. Solidarity movements emerged from their fight against hunger and poverty inthe 1990s to a constituency of a solidarity economy. Some of the best examples include thecooperatives of “catadores”6—self-designed pickers of recyclable materials in the garbagedumps of big cities such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, and the various socialmobilization movements against deforestation in the Amazon and the fight againstcorruption. The level of engagement between the Government, private sector and civilsociety in setting up innovative social policies provides valuable lessons in solidarity.21. Despite achievements, challenges still persist in the largest South American country.The sixth largest economy in the world, Brazil has a population of 200 million inhabitants,of which 16 million are still living in extreme poverty, and the level of inequality is one ofthe highest in the world. The newest programme, Brazil sem Miséria (Brazil withoutMisery), which has incorporated the former Zero Hunger Strategy, through a series ofprogrammes, envisages promoting progress towards socially equitable growth, eradicatingextreme poverty by 2014.722. Brazil embarked on numerous cooperation projects, as a way of sharing with othercountries, valuable lessons learned from its successful experiences as well as the challengesit faced in its implementation of social policies. Policymakers involved in these cooperationprojects also believe the engagement of the country with other partners is a two-waylearning process because Brazil has also learned from its partner countries’ ownexperiences of successes and challenges, no matter what their economic situation. In fact,the Brazilian Foreign Ministry has emphasized that Brazil’s actions on the internationalstage have been driven by a sense of solidarity. Brazil is convinced that it is possible to4 Ibid.5 Interview with Minister of Foreign Affairs, Celso Amorim athttp://portal.saude.gov.br/portal/arquivos/pdf/entrevista_celso_amorim.pdf.6 See http://www.mncr.org.br/.7 For more information on the programme see Brasil sem Miséria website in Portuguese only athttp://www.brasilsemmiseria.gov.br.A/HRC/23/45/Add.1GE.13-11829 7have a humanist foreign policy, without losing sight of the national interest.8 The so-called“Solidarity Diplomacy” has been the driving force in this process.23. The positive impact of the innovative approach in Brazilian cooperation has resultedin requests from numerous countries for Brazil’s support under South-South cooperationprojects as well at the multilateral level, including with the United Nations under themodality of triangular cooperation. This report focuses on international cooperationinitiatives particularly in the fields of agriculture and food security, health and the socialdeterminant of health, education and social protection, and their impact on the realization ofhuman rights.IV. Constitutional principles governing Brazil’s foreign policy24. The 1988 Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil9 in its preambleencapsulates the commitment of the Brazilian people to solidarity. It states:We, the representatives of the Brazilian People, convened in the national constituentassembly to institute a democratic state for the purpose of ensuring the exercise ofsocial and individual rights, liberty, security, well-being, development, equality andjustice as supreme values of a fraternal, pluralist and unprejudiced society, foundedon social harmony and committed, in the internal and international orders, to thepeaceful settlement of disputes, promulgate, under the protection of God, thisConstitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil.25. Article 1 states the key elements of the foundation of the Federative Republic ofBrazil as the following: I – sovereignty; II – citizenship; III – the dignity of the humanperson; IV – the social values of labour and of the free enterprise; V – political pluralism.Article 3 states that fundamental objectives of the Federative Republic of Brazil are: I – tobuild a free, just and solidary society; II – to guarantee national development; III – toeradicate poverty and substandard living conditions and to reduce social and regionalinequalities; IV – to promote the well-being of all, without prejudice as to origin, race, sex,colour, age and any other forms of discrimination. It also captures the essence of humanrights.26. The 1988 Constitution lays down a number of principles that govern Brazilianinternational relations, among which are national independence, the prevalence of humanrights, self-determination, non-intervention, and cooperation among peoples for theprogress of mankind. These principles are underpinned by the solidarity of Braziliansociety, which is also enshrined in the Constitution, and together are applied in building apolicy of international cooperation integrated into foreign policy goals.27. These Constitutional principles that govern international relations have shaped thefeatures of Brazilian cooperation in the spirit of solidarity, as Brazil seeks to contribute tothe social and economic progress of other countries through the sharing of lessons learned,knowledge gained from successful experiences, and best practices. Brazil makes use ofsolutions created and developed domestically to support other countries facing similardifficulties in overcoming obstacles to their development.8 Statement by H.E. Ambassador Celso Amorim, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of the FederativeRepublic of Brazil at the Opening of the General debate of the sixty-fifth Session of the UnitedNations General Assembly, New York, 23 September 2010.9 http://bd.camara.gov.br/bd/bitstream/handle/bdcamara/1344/constituicao_ingles_3ed.pdf .A/HRC/23/45/Add.18 GE.13-1182928. Brazilian cooperation is based on requests received from other countries, withparamount consideration given to their specific needs, as well as in response tohumanitarian appeals from international specialized agencies. There are no conditionsimposed and it is not profit-oriented. The cooperation is driven by solidarity and adheres tothe requirements of the Brazilian Constitution on non-intervention, respect for sovereigntyand self-determination.29. The head of the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) described Braziliancooperation as an exchange between equals, rather than an interaction between donor andrecipient. Brazilian cooperation is in the image of the Brazilian people, a nation with mixedsocieties that live in peace. They are in many ways idealistic, and despite the poverty, astrong feeling of solidarity, rather than pity, prevails. Cooperation should be seen as morethan solving problems; it is a dialogue between nations and peoples to address problemstogether.30. An important feature of Brazilian technical cooperation is that both partners learnfrom each other in the exchange of experiences and knowledge, affirming reciprocalsolidarity among peoples. Partner countries are not passive recipients but are activelyinvolved right from the stage of negotiation, ensuring that cooperation methodology isappropriate to the context of the local reality.V. Brazilian International Cooperation and Solidarity Initiatives31. The Brazilian Cooperation Agency, which is affiliated with the Ministry of ExternalRelations, is the agency mandated to negotiate, coordinate, implement and monitortechnical cooperation programmes in which Brazil participates. ABC provides guidance toother Brazilian agencies regarding cooperation opportunities involving Brazil, supportingthe preparation of projects, coordinating negotiations between the parties involved,monitoring and evaluating project implementation, and publicizing information on projectdevelopment and results. This has made it possible to propagate technical knowledge fromBrazilian institutions to their counterparts in more than 80 developing countries. It thereforerequires a commitment to cooperation on the part of public agencies and entities, privateuniversities and civil society organizations involved in the partnership.32. Brazilian international technical cooperation is a demand-driven process based onsolidarity between developing countries, with the aim of helping partner countries tostrengthen their institutions and human resources. Thus, the main goal of Brazilian South-South technical cooperation is capacity development. Partner countries benefit from aneffective transfer of knowledge, and from the exchange of experiences previouslydeveloped under similar socio-economic realities.33. Technical cooperation, scholarships for foreigners, international humanitariancooperation, and contribution to international organizations are the main modalities of whatBrazil defines as Brazilian cooperation for international development. Agriculture, foodsecurity and nutrition, health, education and vocational training are the key areas ofcooperation. Brazilian cooperation in Africa also aims to strengthen relations with AfricanPortuguese-speaking countries (Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa (PALOP)):Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and Sao Tome and Principe. The keyfocus for Asian cooperation projects is in Timor-Leste, with an emphasis on agriculture andfood security, education, the judicial system, vocational training and public administration.Brazil has recently initiated relations with four Asian countries that belong to the Group ofLeast Developed Countries (LDCs: Afghanistan, Cambodia, the Lao People’s DemocraticRepublic and Myanmar.A/HRC/23/45/Add.1GE.13-11829 934. South-South cooperation contributes to consolidating the relations of Brazil withpartner countries as it enhances general interchange; generates, disseminates and appliestechnical knowledge; builds human resource capacity; and, mainly, strengthens institutionsin all nations involved while at the same time reinforcing public policies in Brazil.Brazilian cooperation agreements are in place with 30 developing countries in South,Central and North America and the Caribbean. It also maintains technical cooperationprogrammes with 38 African countries, 22 of which belong to the group of LDCs.35. Brazil implements triangular technical cooperation guided by the same principlesthat inform its South-South cooperation. Triangular cooperation makes it possible to matchthe comparative advantage from South-South cooperation and other development partners(bilateral and multilateral), leveraging the impact of knowledge sharing between developingcountries. These factors result in greater positive impact in fostering local developmentprocesses. Brazil has implemented or is implementing agreements of triangular cooperationwith the United States, the European Union and a number of its members, Japan, and incountries in Africa and in Latin America and the Caribbean. United Nations agencies arealso playing an important role in Brazilian international cooperation, including theInternational Labour Organization (ILO, the United Nations Food and AgricultureOrganization (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the United NationsPopulation Fund. The World Health Organization (WHO), UNAIDS, the United NationsHigh Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner forHuman Rights and the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment ofWomen (UN-Women) are also partnering with Brazil in support of South-Southcooperation initiatives.36. Brazil is also engaged in other modalities of cooperation consistent with theprinciples applied to their other forms of cooperation and which are presently in the initialphase of implementation, including the following:(a) In the interregional context, the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum(IBSA)10 created in 2003 by the three countries, established the IBSA Fund for Alleviationof Poverty and Hunger, a pioneer initiative created in 2004 with the purpose of identifyingreplicable and scalable projects that can be jointly adapted and implemented in interesteddeveloping countries. Best practices of the three countries are shared with LDCs throughprojects financed by the IBSA Fund, in areas such as agriculture development and foodsecurity, safe drinking water, health care and infrastructure, waste collection and recycling,and building capacity to combat HIV/AIDS. Also in the interregional sphere, threeimportant initiatives with growing importance are the Africa-South America Summit, ArabCountries-South America Summit, and the Forum for Dialogue and Cooperation betweenEast Asia and Latin America. In addition, the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation and theBrazil-Russian-India-China and South Africa Summit (BRICS) have been established.11(b) In the regional context, Brazil is engaged in three integration projects withdifferent levels of cooperation. They are the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR)composed of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay,12 Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic ofVenezuela; the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) consisting of the 12countries of the subcontinent, and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States(CELAC),13 a major project that recently began implementation and including all the 33countries of the region, with the first summit after its establishment taking place in January2013 in Santiago, Chile.10 See http://www.ibsa-trilateral.org.11 For detailed information see http://www.itamaraty.gov.br.12 Paraguay has been suspended since June 2012.13 See http://www.itamaraty.gov.br/temas/america-do-sul-e-integracao-regional/celac.A/HRC/23/45/Add.110 GE.13-11829VI. Good practices in international solidarity and cooperation37. Good practices are cited in this report on the basis that their outcomes carry greatpotential for providing an enabling environment for the realization of human rights.A. Empowering women: towards realizing gender equality38. Brazil has successfully implemented policies and measures in combating violenceagainst women, including sexual violence, achieving progress in health and education aswell as social assistance, which have become important examples for policies in thesefields. June 19, 2012, during the Rio +20 Conference, was marked by the signing ceremonyof the Implementing Programme between UN-Women, through the UN-Women Office inBrazil, and the Brazilian Cooperation Agency of the Ministry of External Relations, for thepromotion of South-South technical cooperation and the Brazil UN-Women PartnershipProgramme for the promotion of South-South cooperation in gender equality. Through thisproject, Brazil will share its experiences in the field of gender equality and womenempowerment with African, Latin American and Caribbean countries.39. According to the Brazilian Cooperation Agency “the implementation of thePartnership Programme will take into account the Brazilian South-South cooperationprinciples, based on the dissemination and exchange of successful experiences, goodpractices, and lessons learned in Brazil, to be shared and adapted to the situation and localneeds of each country in the light of requests received”. In Haiti, Brazil is helping theconstruction of a Centre of Reference and Assistance for women and a Police Station forwomen, and is also supporting the preparation of a national plan for women in Haiti.B. Social protection: towards realizing the right to an adequate standardof living40. Brazil has a longstanding experience with public policies for social protection. Itbegan in the 1930s with the Labour Code, which consolidated labour laws in the country. Inthe past decades, it has progressively incorporated new labour sectors.14 The Constitution of1988 launched a model of Social Security based on citizenship rights with the goal of abroad social protection system that would coordinate contributory, non-contributory andtargeted policies. The Constitution has three key components: Social Insurance(contributive pensions), Health (Unified National Health System) and Social Assistance.41. In recent decades, income inequality has persisted in many countries throughout theworld, despite the decline in absolute poverty. (See the report of the Secretary-General onthe role of the United Nations in promoting a new global human order and an assessment ofthe implications of inequality for development (A/67/394)). Being one of the most unequalcountries in the world, Brazil is particularly challenged, as 16 million of its citizens are stillliving in extreme poverty despite its achievement in the last few years, during which time28 million Brazilians crossed the absolute poverty line and 36 million entered the so-calledmiddle class. In order to face this challenge, Brazil launched in June 2011, the Brasil SemMiséria (Brazil without Misery) plan.15 The programme is coordinated by the Ministry of14 Ministry of Social Development, 2009 available athttp://www.un.org/esa/socdev/documents/gasecond/2009/Filho.pdf.15 See Brasil sem Miséria at http://www.brasilsemmiseria.gov.br.A/HRC/23/45/Add.1GE.13-11829 11Social Development and Fight Against Hunger16 and involves more than 10 ministries, thusplacing social policies at the core of its economic development strategy.42. Previous initiatives to fight poverty such as the Bolsa Família Programme and theProgramme for the Acquisition of Food (Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos) wereexpanded and reinvigorated. Brasil Sem Miséria also introduced novelties such as the BolsaVerde Programme (Green Purse), the Incentive to Rural Productive Activities (Fomento àsAtividades Produtivas Rurais) and the Brasil Carinhoso Action – a drastic measure thatallows the immediate reduction of 40 per cent in the number of families in a situation ofextreme poverty, with 2.7 million children from 0 to 6 years of age being saved frommisery.17 It also has a Busca Ativa strategy adopted by Brasil Sem Miséria to find andregister all extremely poor families that have not yet been located. The Brasil Sem Misériaplan has three main axis of action: (a) the income guarantee axis, which refers to transfersfor the immediate relief of the extreme poverty situation; (b) the productive inclusion axis,which offers job and income opportunities to the plan’s target public; and (c) the access topublic services axis, for the provision or expansion of actions of citizenship and socialwelfare.43. Social policies have contributed to the creation of a dynamic domestic market led bythe middle-class and which generated certain resilience. Two public policy systems werecreated with universal coverage: the Unified Social Assistance System and the NationalSystem on Food and Nutritional Security. The Bolsa Família Programme, a conditionalcash transfer programme, launched in October 2003 and instituted by Federal Law, sets thestrategic axis for the integration of policies and actions that are part of the Brazilian SocialProtection and Promotion Network.44. Given the positive results achieved in recent years, the Brazilian Government,through its Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger, has been encouragedto put a special effort on social policy technology transfer, and to strengthen socialdevelopment beyond its borders, putting into practice the so-called diplomacy of socialpolicy that is presently being implemented. International cooperation in the social field isguided by (a) a focus on building institutional capacities in partner countries; (b) themultiplier effect in cooperation projects; (c) cultural and linguistic similarities; and (d) thetransfer of social technology adaptable to local contexts.45. A few examples of ongoing cooperation include:(a) The Brazil-Africa Programme for cooperation on social protection, theoutcome of a partnership between the Ministry of Social Development, the UnitedKingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID) and the International PolicyCentre for Inclusive Growth. The cooperation was developed in four areas: regionaltechnical cooperation, technical assistance, study missions and distance learning. Thecountries involved are Angola, Ghana and Mozambique.(b) Promotion of the right to adequate food through the reduction of social andfood vulnerability of populations in African countries. This is accomplished bystrengthening programmes for local purchase of food supply, such as government andUnited Nations agencies’ strategy for assistance and food aid, including school feedingprogrammes, and also for humanitarian purposes, as in the case of the Agriculture FoodPurchase Programme (PAA) Africa Programme. Partner countries are Côte d’Ivoire,Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Kenya, Rwanda, Senegal and Zimbabwe.16 See http://www.mds.gov.br.17 See http://www.mds.gov.br/brasilsemmiseria/brasil-carinhoso.A/HRC/23/45/Add.112 GE.13-11829(c) Cooperation between Brazil, the United Kingdom and Ghana to support thedesign of the Livelihoods Empowerment against Poverty programme of the Government ofGhana.(d) In El Salvador: (a) a programme for promoting the institutional strengtheningof entities involved in social policy management and implementation; (b) optimization ofthe decentralized management of social policies and programmes; promotion of theintersectoral commitment of all stakeholders to mobilize local, regional, national andinternational resources for implementation and management of social programmes andpolicies; (c) support for the formulation process of a normative proposal for theinstitutionalization of the Salvadoran social protection system; (d) the creation ofmechanisms to improve the dialogue between Government and civil society; (e)improvement of effective capacity of Salvadoran social policies and programme managers;and (f) integration of the children and adolescents protection system in the country.46. In 2007, the Brazilian Government and the International Labour Organizationlaunched an initiative to promote specific South-South technical cooperation projects andactivities that contribute effectively to the prevention and elimination of child labour, inaccordance with the international obligations of each country.47. A significant example of South-South solidarity is the IBSA Dialogue Forum, amajor trilateral development initiative which has been a major driver of South-Southcooperation and exchanges in social policies among the IBSA member countries and othercountries. In a 2010 Summit, IBSA leaders reiterated the need to promote a job-intensiverecovery from the economic slowdown and to create a framework for sustainable growthand a strong cooperation between ILO and IBSA countries. An IBSA InternationalConference on South-South Cooperation Innovations in Public Employment Programmesand Sustainable Inclusive Growth was held in New Delhi from 1 to 3 March 2012 to (a)share knowledge between countries; (b) ensure better cohesion for overall inclusive growthwith equity; (c) contribute to the implementation of the Decent Work Agenda and itsstrategic objectives in the fields of employment, social protection, work-related rights andsocial dialogue; and (d) support and work with ILO’s South-South and TriangularCooperation Initiative to foster greater solidarity and enhance equality among countries andpeoples in the world of work.48. Important initiatives are taking place also at the regional and subregional levels. Oneexample is the establishment of the Instituto de Políticas Públicas em Direitos Humanos doMERCOSUL (Institute of Public Policy on Human Rights),18 a body of MERCOSUR,which operates as a forum for technical cooperation, research and coordination of publicpolicies on human rights in the countries that make up this regional bloc.C. Agriculture and food security: towards realizing the right to food49. For decades Brazil, as one of largest agricultural producers and exporters in theworld, faced a challenging contradiction. At the same time that the country was celebratinghuge progress in agricultural terms, with its pioneering tropical agriculture research,production increases at historical levels and economic progress, hunger still persisted andrepresented a major social challenge. According to FAO’s estimates, some 16.7 millionBrazilians (10 per cent of the population) were chronically undernourished at the end of the18 See http://www.ippdh.mercosur.int/.A/HRC/23/45/Add.1GE.13-11829 131990s.19 This challenge and developments in the past year have been well documented bycurrent and former special rapporteurs on the right to food.2050. When elected for his first term, former President of Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silvamade eradication of hunger a key priority of his agenda, and a national cause. He called fora great national movement to fight for this cause. A national policy, termed Zero Hungerstrategy, was implemented in 2003 with the aim of eradicating hunger by the end of thePresident’s term. Zero Hunger was grounded on solidarity and implemented through a cashtransfer programme (Bolsa Família) and a major school meal programme that strengthenedfamily agriculture. The school meal programme was responsible for more than 70 per centof total food consumed in the country. The Agriculture Food Purchase Programme (PAA)today buys 30 per cent of food for school meals, locally and from family farmers.51. In 2006, a National Food and Nutritional Security Framework Law was approved bythe Brazilian Congress (Law 11.346).21 The law acknowledges that adequate food is a basichuman right and is indispensable in realizing other rights that are set forth in the country’sfederal Constitution.22 The debate and institutionalization of a policy for food andnutritional security was considered as one of the most important achievements in the socialpolicies of the last few years. Key areas of focus are strengthening of family agriculture,food supply and promotion of health and adequate food.52. Brazilian foreign policy prioritized the fight against hunger and poverty as aninstrument for promoting international solidarity. In January 2004, the Presidents of Brazil,Chile and France, with the support of the United Nations Secretary-General, launched aninitiative to fight hunger and poverty, calling on the international community to create newsources of financing for development in order to make progress toward the achievement ofthe Millennium Development Goals. A Summit of World Leaders for Action againstHunger and Poverty was held later in September the same year on the eve of the GeneralAssembly. It adopted the New York Declaration on Action against Hunger and Povertysigned by 111 national Governments23 stating that at the present stage of technologicalprogress and agricultural production worldwide, the persistence of this situation iseconomically irrational, politically unacceptable and morally shameful and called for arenewed political mobilization to fight these challenges.53. Agriculture has become a central element of Brazilian cooperation along with healthand education among others. This cooperation is taking place with not only Southern butalso with Northern and multilateral partners, including the United Nations system. Foodsecurity, genetic improvement, agricultural technology transfer, soil conservation, familyfarming, rural development, irrigation, cooperatives, renewable and clean energy, and ruraldevelopment are examples of Brazil’s cooperation initiatives.54. The agro-ecological and climate similarities between Africa and Brazil havecontributed to making agriculture one of the key axes of Brazilian solidarity diplomacywith Africa. Since 2002, more than 50 agreements were signed with nearly 20 countries,including Algeria, Angola, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique,19 See FAO “Brazil: The hunger of the missed meal” athttp://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/news/2003/13320-en.html.20 Country missions to Brazil undertaken by the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food are available athttp://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Food/Pages/Visits.aspx.21 See also FAO, “Right to Food: Lessons Learned in Brazil”, p. 20 (2007),ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1331e/a1331e.pdf.22 Ibid., p. 21.23 The New York Declaration on action against hunger and poverty is available athttp://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/IMG/pdf/Declaration_de_New_York_sur_l_action_contre_la_faim_et_la_pauvrete_20_septembre_2004.pdf.A/HRC/23/45/Add.114 GE.13-11829Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, the United Republic of Tanzania and Tunisia24. An officeof the Brazilian Agricultural Research Enterprise (Embrapa) was established in Accra,Ghana with a view to supporting the technological and productive improvement ofsavannah agriculture in Africa.55. In Latin America and Caribbean region, Brazilian experiences in agriculture areproviding examples for many initiatives under implementation in the regional and bilateralcooperation under MERCOSUR, UNASUR and CELAC regional integration processes, inareas such as family farming and transfer of technology, among others. The Hunger-FreeLatin America and the Caribbean Initiative draws from the Brazilian experience and is acommitment by the countries and organizations of the region, with support from FAO, tocontribute actively in creating the conditions that will lead to the eradication of hungerpermanently by 2025.2556. Brazil has also engaged in numerous agricultural cooperation projects in otherdeveloping countries in partnership with donor countries. The ProSavanna Project is apioneer triangular partnership between Brazil, Japan and Mozambique to accelerateagricultural growth in Mozambique through the development of improved seeds of soybeanand rice, improving soil health, and funding roads and other infrastructure. Agricultureremains largely the key sector for social-economic development in the country employing80 percent of the labour force.26 The EU–Brazil Strategic Partnership, set up in 2008,started to explore opportunities for triangular cooperation with developing countries in thefield of agriculture, through promotion of innovation leading to a more efficient productionwithin African countries.2757. In the United Nations, key agencies such as FAO, WFP and the International Fundfor Agricultural Development (IFAD) are engaged in cooperation projects and initiativeswith Brazil, which has become a major donor for international humanitarian cooperation inLatin America, for example in the case of Haiti, Palestine and the countries in the Horn ofAfrica. In 2011, WFP and the Government of Brazil launched a Centre of ExcellenceAgainst Hunger based in Brasília, which will assist countries to improve, expand andeventually run their own national school meal programmes.The example of Embrapa58. The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) under the Ministry ofAgriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, has been one of the most important actors in thefield of the country’s technical cooperation in agriculture. It was set up in 1973 with themission to provide research, development and innovation towards finding feasible solutionsfor the sustainable development of agriculture for the benefit of Brazilian society. Embrapawas established when Brazilian agriculture was marked by low production and yields,economic instability, lack of specific knowledge about tropical agriculture and institutionalvoid, among other challenges.28 The establishment of Embrapa led to the building of apioneer research capability on agriculture in the country that has global dimensions.24 See Brazil’s statement at the sixty-seventh session of the General Assembly debate on the NewPartnership for Africa’s Development: progress in implementation and international support. NewYork, 17 October 2012.25 See http://www.rlc.fao.org/en/initiative/the-initiative.26 See the ProSavanna project at http://www.gatesfoundation.org/g20/Documents/pro-savannah-casestudy.pdf.27 See the Brazil-European Union Strategic Partnership Joint Action Plan athttp://eeas.europa.eu/brazil/docs/2008_joint_action_plan_en.pdf.28 See http://www.iagre.org/sites/iagre.org/files/conferences/brazilag%20-%20for%20web.pdf.A/HRC/23/45/Add.1GE.13-11829 1559. Today, Embrapa has 10,000 personnel including 2,500 researchers conductingstudies from technologies for family farming in the poorest north-east region of the country,to highly advanced research such as nanotechnology. There are currently 45 ResearchCentres on different themes all over the country, which have a presence through their socalledvirtual laboratories in the United States, France, the United Kingdom, theNetherlands and the Republic of Korea. Physical offices have been established in theBolivarian Republic of Venezuela and Ghana. Embrapa is contributing to thedemocratization of knowledge in agricultural sciences and related areas.60. Embrapa’s work has been key to the success of Brazilian tropical agriculture,motivating other countries with similar problems and challenges to seek information andpartnership with Embrapa. International cooperation has been crucial in the establishmentand consolidation of Embrapa, today considered the most advanced tropical agricultureresearch institute in the world.61. It has a strong post-graduate programme, which has sent hundreds of youngprofessionals to the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Spain, the Netherlands,Germany and Australia. Projects funded by the World Bank, Inter-American DevelopmentBank and the Japanese Government have been very important in financing this humandevelopment programme and also in equipping the research units. Embrapa is a majorconduit for the cooperation of Brazil with a number of countries, to transfer its experiencesand technology, and to adapt these to local conditions in partner countries.62. Brazil has shared with partner countries its expertise in access and food production –(a) genetic improvement; (b) enhanced planting, irrigation and harvest methods; (c) use ofagricultural machinery; (d) animal husbandry; and (e) animal product processing – and inmarketing. It has sought to enhance food security and nutrition through strengtheningfamily agriculture, and has been particularly successful in establishing farmer cooperativesin order to add value to their produce and to increase family income. Sharing of bestpractices consolidated by the Brazilian Government with developing countries expands thegeographic scope of Brazilian cooperation and introduces policies and programmes thatwere implemented successfully in Brazil to lift its people out of poverty. Braziliancooperatives are exemplars in the solidarity economy. The 1,600 agricultural cooperativesin Brazil have almost a million members, generating 160,000 jobs and representing 30 percent of agricultural gross domestic product, with its agri-food exports bringing in revenuesof $6 billion in 2012.29 Brazil’s experience with cooperatives is now being shared withAfrican countries and has inspired similar models in other countries. The BrazilianCooperation Agency and the Brazilian Cooperatives Organization undertook a mission toBotswana in 2011, to explore the possibilities of developing agricultural cooperatives inthat African country.63. The Africa-Brazil Agricultural Innovation Marketplace initiative is a process thatfocuses on generating benefits for smallholder farmers and producers. Its objective is toenhance agricultural innovation for development on the African continent by establishingand strengthening partnerships between African and Brazilian organizations.64. The Marketplace will open a new source of expertise to Africa, to identify and targetpro-poor, smallholder-based project utilizing Brazilian innovation research. TheMarketplace was developed by Embrapa and the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa(FARA), with support from the United Kingdom’s DFID, IFAD, the World Bank, the ABC,and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. This South-South collaboration with activeNorthern support is making an important contribution to more productive agriculture and29 Information provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Supply, FAO and Organization ofBrazilian Cooperatives.A/HRC/23/45/Add.116 GE.13-11829more affordable food for the poor in Africa, complementing other ongoing efforts. Thesame initiative has recently started implementation in another region, the Latin-Americanand Caribbean (LAC) region. It is known as the LAC-Brazil Agricultural InnovationMarketplace.65. A programme to provide support for the development of the cotton industry in C4Countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad and Mali), also known as the Cotton 4 Project, wasset up in 2008 with the official support of the Brazilian Government for the World TradeOrganization Cotton Initiative, brought forward by C4 countries as a result of their lossesdue to subsidy policies used in the international cotton market. The objectives of the projectincluded (a) the development of the cotton industry in C4 countries; (b) the transfer ofBrazilian technology to increase the profitability of the cotton supply chain; and (c)improvement of the quality of life, food security and nutrition levels in beneficiarycountries. Under the framework of this project, Brazil is also cooperating with Mali torevitalize the Sotuba Research Centre outside of Bamako.66. In 2012, the Brazilian Government signed a project with FAO aiming to providefinancial support for a new local food purchase programme to be set up by FAO and WFP.The programme will initially benefit small farmers and vulnerable populations in fiveAfrican countries – Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger and Senegal.30 The projectenvisages the sharing of Brazil’s experiences with its own national Agriculture FoodPurchase Programme (PAA), a programme that buys agricultural products fromsmallholders and delivers them to at-risk categories, including children and youth, throughschool feeding programmes. The PAA is considered by FAO to be a cornerstone of thecountry’s Zero Hunger strategy.D. Health and the social determinants of health: towards realizing theright to health67. The Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988 established health as a right of allcitizens and a public duty leading to strong policy on the right to universal access to healthservices. It reflected the strong commitment of the Government and support by civil societythrough a well-organized social movement mobilization. The Unified Health System (SUS)was created as the primary network of public health institutions aiming to provide, financeand manage health services. SUS is one of the largest public health systems in the world,with a wide coverage, from outpatient care to complex procedures such as organtransplants, guaranteeing full, universal and free access for the entire country’spopulation.31 Policy also focused on prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, with acompulsory licensing of patents related to an anti-retroviral medicine used by the NationalSTD/AIDS Programme being implemented in 2007 to ensure free treatment for allBrazilians infected with HIV/AIDS.68. Currently, SUS attends to the care of 145 million citizens32 and represents a worldexample of universal health coverage programme funded through solidarity taxesrepresenting its citizens’ contribution to the public budget. The programme is oriented bythe principles of universal access, equality and integrity in the assistance, communityparticipation and decentralization. Brazil sees the right to health as a key element fordevelopment and building of a more equal, inclusive and fair society.30 Brazil to fund food purchasing in five African countries athttp://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/123551/icode.31 Survey of the Brazilian Cooperation for International Development 2005–2009.32 Ministry of Health, 2012.A/HRC/23/45/Add.1GE.13-11829 171. Building strong public institutions: the case of Fiocruz69. The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) was established in 1900 in Rio de Janeiro,with the task of addressing public health problems in Brazil. Fiocoruz is attached to theMinistry of Health and is considered as one of the leading science and technology healthinstitutions in the world. It is responsible for research, production of vaccines andmedicines, and controlling the quality of products and services. Its activities includeprovision of hospital and outpatient services, implementation of social programmes,teaching activities and the training and qualification of professionals and researchers.Fiocruz mission is to promote health and social development, to forge and disseminatescientific and technological knowledge, and to be an agent of citizenship.70. Fiocruz has become renowned as a leading research centre for the control of diseasessuch as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. It manufactures pharmaceutical products forSUS. With one of the largest public pharmaceutical laboratories in the country – the DrugTechnology Institute (Farmanguinhos) – Fiocruz has achieved vast experience inproduction technologies for drugs used in HIV/AIDS treatment. Fiocruz is presentlyinvolved in the establishment of an antiretroviral production plant in Mozambique. Theproject includes multidisciplinary implementation such as training of local technical staff insurveillance, inspection, certification and control of medication, and also its production andcommercialization processes, so that the Mozambican regulatory agency can efficientlyimplant the antiretroviral (ARV) production plant.71. Brazil’s first Human Milk Bank (HMB) was opened in 1943 as a result of research,technology development, teaching and consultancy work by Fiocruz. HMBs havedeveloped to become what is known today as the world’s largest and most complex HMBnetwork, the foremost Government strategy to reduce infant mortality. It is a model thatcombines high reliability and technical accuracy at a low operating cost. In 2001, WHOawarded the HMB network for its major contribution in reducing infant mortality andpromoting breastfeeding in the 1990s. The Brazilian Cooperation Agency has 19 HMBprojects already being implemented in Latin America and the Caribbean, along withinitiatives of this Brazilian model in African countries. European countries such as Portugaland Spain have also adopted the HMB technology initiated and developed by Brazil.2. Engagement in global health diplomacy72. Brazil believes that international solidarity should have a global perspective onhealth and human rights, and has thus made a strong commitment to share its ownexperiences and challenges through international cooperation towards strengtheninginternal public health policies and practices worldwide. This conviction was expressed byformer President Lula da Silva in his early interaction with G8 leaders in his statement: “Ina globalized world, in which global threats come mainly from poverty, alienation and socialexclusion, solidarity is not only a moral duty, it is a display of enlightened self-interest.” 3373. Brazil has since become a key player in health diplomacy by (a) defending universalhealth coverage; (b) widening access to medicines, in particular for vulnerablecommunities; (c) strengthening health systems; (d) combating chronic non-transmissiblediseases; (e) controlling tobacco; and (f) giving attention to the social determinants ofhealth. Health was placed at the core of the Action against Hunger and Poverty, launched in2004 by President Lula da Silva and other world leaders in New York, where the Presidentstated that health was key to development and to combating poverty.34 Together withFrance, Chile, Norway and the United Kingdom, Brazil has launched the International Drug33 Statement by the Foreign Minister of Brazil, Ambassador Celso Amorim, at the Sixtieth World HealthAssembly — Geneva, 15 May 2007 – http://www.brazil.org.uk/press/speeches_files/20070515.html.34 See footnote 29.A/HRC/23/45/Add.118 GE.13-11829Purchase Facility, UNITAID.35 This initiative marked a major example of the potential ofinternational solidarity in creating an innovative mechanism to fund access to high-qualitydrugs and the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.74. Brazil was one of the countries that led the initiative on Global Health and ForeignPolicy, launched in September 2006 in New York, on the sidelines of the GeneralAssembly, which led to the Oslo Ministerial Declaration a year later, urgently calling for amore expansive foreign policy to create a new paradigm of cooperation, and outlining thelinkages between foreign policy and health.36 In 2011, Brazil hosted the WHO WorldConference on Social Determinants of Health. The Rio Political Declaration on SocialDeterminants of Health that was consequently adopted, was a global political commitmentto reduce health inequities and to achieve other global priorities by building momentumwithin countries for the development of dedicated national action plans and strategies.373. Bringing the health agenda across borders75. Health is a priority both on the Brazilian domestic agenda and for internationalcooperation, where it applies its structural approach, characterized by efforts to developindividual and institutional capacity in partner countries, with sustainable results. Health asa right of all and as a duty of the State, drives Brazilian cooperation, and is implementedbased on mutual respect and a commonly agreed agenda.76. The main Brazilian cooperation projects in Africa and South America focus onhuman resource training, capacity-building in research, teaching or services, and onstrengthening or setting up health system institutions, including ministries of health,schools of public health, national health institutes, faculties for higher professional training,polytechnic health colleges, technological development, and production institutes andfactories. The public health system of Brazil and its international health cooperation arebased on the principle of universal access to the public health system.77. In the regional context, Brazil has advocated for a strong regional cooperation onhealth. It took the lead in establishing the South American Institute of Government inHealth (ISAGS) with its main office in Rio de Janeiro. ISAGs,38 inaugurated in 2011, is anintergovernmental entity and a member of the South American Health Council of the Unionof South American Nations (UNASUR).39 ISAGs is a key institution for strengtheningcoordination and exchange between the health authorities and other Governmentauthorities. The focus areas of the UNASUR Five-Year Health Plan are the SouthAmerican health vigilance and response network, universal health system development,universal access to medication, health promotion and health determinants, human resourcesand management. Committed to implementing the South American Health Agenda and thescope of priorities in the UNASUR 2010–2015 Five-Year Health Plan, ISAGS accordinglyfocuses its actions on the following strategies: (a) interchange and training of humanresources; (b) lines of research and diagnostics; (c) accumulation and dissemination ofknowledge on governance in health; (d) organization of the supply and demand forcooperation; and (e) promotion of networking.78. A trilateral agreement between Haiti, Cuba and Brazil is focused on theimplementation of Haitian health structures, the establishment of a national outpatient35 See http://www.unitaid.eu/fr/.36 Brazil’s conception of South-South “structural cooperation” in health, Review Global Forum Updateon Research for Health − Innovating for the health of all, 2009, Vol. 6: 100-107.37 Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 21 October 2011available from http://www.who.int/sdhconference/declaration/Rio_political_declaration.pdf.38 See http://isags-unasul.org/interna.asp?lang=2&idArea=1&idSubArea=34.39 See http://www.unasursg.org/.A/HRC/23/45/Add.1GE.13-11829 19system, the training of health workers, especially middle-level staff that the system urgentlyneeds, and the control of infectious diseases. It involves the complete rebuilding of thehealth system to make it more capable of meeting the health needs of the Haitian people.The day after the earthquake, parameters were established to guide the reconstruction of theHaitian health system. One of the aims of the agreement is the provision of universalaccess, and the achievement thereof is based on the population’s wish to participate in therebuilding of the country and its ability to develop innovative forms of solidarity.E. The full development of the person: towards realizing the right toeducation79. The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declared education as a right of all, and duty ofthe State and of the family, to be promoted and fostered with the cooperation of society,with a view to the full development of the person, his preparation for the exercise ofcitizenship and his qualification for work (Article 205).40 The Brazilian Constitution of1946 had already stated in its article 166 that education was a right of all which should beinspired by the principles of freedom and ideals of human solidarity,41 both endorsed in thelater National Education and Guidelines Framework Law adopted in 1996.4280. In an effort to ensure the education of Brazilians, social programmes recentlyimplemented have included education as a key element. This is the case of the BolsaFamília, in which beneficiaries must accomplish certain requirements, including schoolenrolment and minimum attendance. A programme called PROUNI43 was implemented toenable poor students to have access to higher education through grants that cover theircosts. Recent developments in the field of education include a new Government policyrequiring the 56 public federal universities to guarantee 50 per cent of their admissions tobe filled by students coming from public secondary schools. Special attention has also beengiven to ethnic groups with lower participation in higher education such as Afro-Brazilians.The Open University of Brazil44 has been created to offer distance education.81. A pioneer programme for international exchange and mobility in higher education isbeing implemented under the Ciência sem fronteiras programme (Science without Borders)established in 2012.45 The strategy is to (a) increase the presence of students, scientists andindustry personnel from Brazil in international institutions of excellence, negotiating theextension of support from the private sector for the payment of the fees involved or theexemption of these fees with universities or local governments; (b) encourage young talentsand highly qualified researchers from abroad to work with local investigators in jointprojects, contributing to the capacitation of human resources and promoting the return ofBrazilian scientists working overseas; and (c) induce the internationalization of universitiesand research centres in Brazil by encouraging the establishment of internationalpartnerships and a meaningful review of their internal procedures in order to make theinteraction with foreign partners feasible. The programme aims to provide 75,000 grantsoffered by the federal Government and another 26,000 will be offered by the private sector,which reinforces the role of private sector in supporting Government actions on science andtechnology development.40 Text of the Brazilian Constitution 1988 available fromhttp://bd.camara.gov.br/bd/bitstream/handle/bdcamara/1344/constituicao_ingles_3ed.pdf.41 Article 166 of the Brazilian Constitution 1946.42 See http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/L9394.htm.43 See http://siteprouni.mec.gov.br/.44 See http://www.uab.capes.gov.br/.45 Ciência sem Fronteiras (Science without Borders) programme –http://www.cienciasemfronteiras.gov.br.A/HRC/23/45/Add.120 GE.13-1182982. Two federal universities were created with regional and interregional dimensionsand are examples of solidarity cooperation undertaken by Brazil in the field of education.The Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana (UNILA),46 located in Foz doIguaçu in the State of Paraná was established in 2010. The objective of the university is topursue interregional trans-disciplinary research and teaching in the areas of joint interest ofMERCOSUR member countries47 focusing, for example, on the use of natural resources,trans-border biodiversity, social sciences and linguistic research and international relations,as well as relevant disciplines for strategic development. Half of its student quota is forBrazilians, while the other half is for other Latin Americans subsidized by Brazil.83. The Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira(UNILAB),48 is another example of cooperation solidarity and a boost for South-Southcooperation in higher education.49 It is based in Redenção, in the north-east of Brazil, aplace with historical importance as it was the first city to abolish slavery in Brazil. Half itsstudents are Brazilian, and half are from Portuguese-speaking African countries, subsidizedby Brazil. The teaching staff is comprised of Brazilian and African professors. In five years,UNILAB expects to have 5,000 Brazilian and African students in undergraduate andgraduate courses in the fields of Health, Agronomy, Teacher Training, Engineering andPublic Administration.50 In October 2012, UNILAB and the Brazilian Cooperation Agencysigned an agreement to implement a pioneer project to provide the structuring of thenetwork’s cultural and academic cooperation through partnerships with universities andresearch centres in the eight Portuguese-speaking countries of the Community ofPortuguese-Speaking Countries (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa).51VII. Concluding remarks84. The Independent Expert reiterates her sincere appreciation to the Governmentof Brazil for the gracious hospitality and openness of all its officials and personnelwho willingly gave of their time to share their experience and knowledge, contributinggreatly to the success of the first country study mission of this mandate on humanrights and international solidarity.85. The Independent Expert commends the Government of Brazil for its policy andpractice of solidarity that define its international cooperation programme in all itsmodalities, both in South-South and triangular cooperation contexts. She finds itremarkable how consistently solidarity was credited as the driving force of Braziliancooperation, across all ministries and offices of Government she visited. More thansimply solving problems, cooperation was seen as a dialogue between nations andpeoples to address problems together, fostering equality and mutual respect.86. The Independent Expert notes with admiration how Brazilian society isstrongly attached to the values and principles of solidarity that are enshrined in its46 See UNILA website at http://www.unila.edu.br .47 MERCOSUR is composed by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The Bolivarian Republic ofVenezuela has been a full member since July 2012 and Paraguay has been suspended since June2012.48 International Integration University of African-Brazilian Portuguese-speaking Countries (UNILAB) –http://www.unilab.edu.br/.49 Ibid.50 The Brazilian Example of the New Afro-Brazilian University: Foreign Policy, Innovation and South-South Cooperation – http://www.guninetwork.org/resources/good-practices/good-practiceslisting/the-brazilian-example-of-the-new-afro-brazilian-university-foreign-policy-innovation-andsouth-south-cooperation/.51 Information provided by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency.A/HRC/23/45/Add.1GE.13-11829 21Constitution, and which have become the driving force in Brazil’s internationalcooperation. Overcoming inequality and persistent poverty, along with the problemsrooted in them, will require time and enormous effort on the part of the Governmentof Brazil and its people. These complex and interconnecting problems have spurredthe Government to respond with numerous innovative and multifaceted programmesdescribed in this report, designed to simultaneously address a number of concerns.87. The Independent Expert has observed how these efforts to overcometremendous difficulties are sustained by a strong sense of solidarity, the same spiritthat has become the hallmark of Brazil’s international cooperation initiatives and thathas inspired others to reciprocate accordingly. Many of Brazil’s problems endure, butmany have also been overcome. Brazil deploys the lessons learned from both itstriumphs and failures, to enrich its international cooperation strategies upon request,which its development partners have the free choice to adapt to their own context.88. The international cooperation programme of Brazil described in this report inthe fields of agriculture and food security, health, social protection and education,play an important role in creating a global impact towards the realization of humanrights, the goal of international solidarity in development cooperation. TheIndependent Expert has observed how international solidarity in the case of Brazilemanates from the experience of the national Government in implementing itsobligation to respect, protect and fulfil human rights within its own territories, andshared with international development partners.89. The first country study mission of the Independent Expert that took place inBrazil has shown that international solidarity possesses instrumental value, while atthe same time it is an end in itself. It has also supported the value of best practices asportals to the inherent interface between the policy and practice of internationalsolidarity and the realization of human rights, and how such good practices ofcollective action on the ground—whether among individuals, groups of individuals orStates – ineluctably lead to desirable outcomes towards the realization of humanrights.



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