These issues relate to the proper functioning of all State powers and institutions (with an emphasis on the administration of justice) which must all respect and guarantee human rights. It also refers to transitional justice and the democratic responsibility of the State to seek the truth, judge, and sanction those responsible for human rights violations of the past, as well as to compensate victims.
These issues relate to the way in which States, their institutions and security agents (police, military, prison staff) respond to the phenomenon of violence and public insecurity. It includes observations on cases of extrajudicial executions, torture, arbitrary detentions and other abuses by agents of the State in democracy. This topic also covers violence against women, or that which is targeted towards indigenous peoples, afro-descendents or other minorities.
These issues relate to distinctions, exclusions, restrictions or preferences that either directly or indirectly have a negative effect on a person´s rights or equality of opportunities. It includes the responses and solutions offered by the State. Discrimination can be on the basis of race, colour, ethnicity, gender, language, religion, political opinion, national or social origin, age, disability, economic position, sexual orientation, etc.
These issues relate to the way in which States fulfill their obligations to adopt measures to ensure a decent standard of living for all their citizens. This involves guaranteeing access to the economic, social and cultural rights contained in the CESCR and ensuring that State-sponsored development models do not violate other rights, such as the enjoyment of natural resources or ancestral lands.
These topics refer to any human rights issue not covered by the other four categories. It includes issues such a freedom of expression, climate change, human trafficking, national human rights institutions, human rights plans, etc.